International Journal of Technical Innovation in Modern Engineering & Science 2021-12-03T04:50:15-05:00 Mr. Bharat Kumar Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Welcome to IJTIMES !</strong></p> <p><strong>International Journal of Technical Innovation in Modern Engineering &amp; Science( IJTIMES) </strong>is a scholarly, online international journal which aims to Publish peer reviewed original research result oriented Survey papers in the fields of Engineering , Basic and Applied Sciences and Promote Innovative Technology. This journal intends to be of interest and utility to researchers and practitioners in the academic, industrial and governmental sectors. All original research contributions of significant value in all areas of engineering discipline are welcome.</p> <p>Submitted papers will be reviewed by Technical Committees of the Journal. All submitted articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be peer-reviewed. Articles submitted to the journal should meet these criteria and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts should follow the style of the journal and are subject to both review and editing.</p> <table class="table-hover" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td>e-ISSN</td> <td>:</td> <td><strong>2455-2585</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Journal Type</td> <td>:</td> <td>Open Access</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Frequency</td> <td>:</td> <td>Monthly (12 issues Annually)</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Subject Category</td> <td>:</td> <td>Engineering ,Science &amp; Technology</td> </tr> <tr> <td>UGC NO</td> <td>:</td> <td><strong><span style="color: red;">47719 (OLD)</span></strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Subscription Fee</td> <td>:</td> <td>Contact Journal Management for Subscription</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><br /><strong>Important Dates :</strong></p> <ul> <li>Paper Submission: 31/08/2021.</li> <li>Review Results (Acceptance/Rejection) Notification: Within 10-15 Days after submitting paper.</li> <li>Paper will be published within 5-7 days after submitting all necessary documents.</li> </ul> <p><br /><strong>Benefits of Publishing Paper at IJTIMES :</strong></p> <ul> <li>IJTIMES is globally accepted one of the well-known International Engineering Research Journal.</li> <li><strong>Soft Copy of "Certificate of Publication" of all authors (instantly available after publication)</strong></li> <li>IJTIMES is an Open-Access peer reviewed International Journal</li> <li>Check Your Paper Status online using Paper id and Author Email.</li> <li>Indexing of paper in all major online journal databases.</li> <li>Open Access Journal Database for High visibility and promotion of your article with keyword and abstract.</li> <li>Author Research Guidelines &amp; Support</li> <li>Prestigious Reviewers from Well-known Institutes.</li> <li>Lifetime Access to IJTIMES Paper and Author Account</li> <li>For any Query Please contact on <strong></strong></li> </ul> EFFECTS OF HARDWATER ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE PROPERTIES 2021-11-30T08:27:33-05:00 R Uma Maheswari C Siva Kumar Prasad <p style="text-align: justify;">Presence of either temporary hardness or permanent hardness to the water is becoming almost inevitable in both surface and ground water. The water used in construction purpose, more so in the preparation of concrete knowingly or unknowingly is containing hardness. It is therefore necessary for researchers to study the effect of hardness on cement and concrete properties. In this work synthetic temporary hardwater at different proportions is prepared by dissolving NaHCO3 is distilled water and such water is used to prepare concreate. It is observed that both cement and concrete properties are affected by temporary hardness. Normal consistency, initial and final setting times are increased in the presence of NaHCO3 in water. Also, elasticity properties are affected by presence of temporary hardness in water.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON CONCRETE BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF FINE AGGREGATE WITH COPPER SLAG AND CEMENT WITH FLY ASH 2021-11-30T08:30:40-05:00 O. JAYARAMIREDDY Dr.B.MADHUSUDANA REDDY <p style="text-align: justify;">Concrete has been the most preferred construction material for over five decades.The problem of how to meet the increasing demand and cost of concrete in sustainable manner is a challenge in the field of civil engineering and environmental studies. Alternative materials generally used are mainly the industrial wastes which are facing the problems of safe disposal and cause environment hazards. Copper Slag and Fly Ash are such industrial wastes in huge quantity facing the safe disposal.In view of the above, An Experimental study carried on concrete by partial replacement of fine aggregate with copper slag and cement with fly ash in concrete production.This experimental study mainly consists of two parts. In first part optimum percentage of Copper Slag and Fly Ash were determined individually by testing the compressive strength of cement mortar cubes with various percentage replacement of fine aggregate with Copper slag and various percentage replacement of cement with Fly Ash. In second part optimum percentage of Copper Slag and Fly Ash together added to the concrete and various strength parameters were determined for M20 and M25 grade concretes. The obtained results were compared with those of control concrete made with ordinary Portland cement and fine aggregate. The results indicate that there is gain in strength and better resistant for durability tests.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PARAMETRIC STUDY OF EFFECT OF SOLID FREEFORM FABRICATION PROCESS PARAMETERS ON RESPONSE PARAMETERS: A REVIEW 2021-11-30T09:31:12-05:00 Jaimin V Thakkar Saurabh A Ban Akash B Pandey <p style="text-align: justify;">Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) is one of the most popular additive manufacturing technologies for various engineering applications. Now a days SFF is rapidly developed and widely used additive manufacturing technique. SFF is low cost and easy to used fused filament fabrication method. In this method thermoplastic materials used to build the object which is extracted from the nozzle orifice according to CAD model layer by layer manner. The purpose of this study to investigate the effect of various process parameters of SFF on response parameters by reviewing various research work done by the researchers in this field. Also this paper gives basic information about SFF process and how the individual output parameters affected by various input parameters In this paper, an extensive review is carried out for different methods used to optimize the input process parameters to get desired output results. This paper also covers the numerous techniques available for optimization of surface quality. There are several statically optimization techniques and microscopic observations are considered.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lab VIEW based Smart Rescue Robot 2021-11-30T09:35:38-05:00 Y. Amar Babu K. Tarun Sri Krishna Sai R. Sai Navya M. Nihitha B. Srikanth <p style="text-align: justify;">LabVIEW is a virtual system design platform and development environment for a visual programming language. MyRIO is a real time embedded evaluation board made by National Instruments which provides reliable data acquisition. It is used to develop applications that utilize its onboard FPGA and microprocessor. A rescue robot is one which is designed for the purpose of rescuing people. Common situations that employ rescue robots are mining accidents, urban disasters like collapsing of huge infrastructures. This employment of rescue robots reduces the human efforts and fatigue conditions. Our proposed model navigates by visualizing arena’s clearance. The arena’s situation is monitored by the observer from the video transmitted from a camera embedded in the robot to get a better picture of the accidents. Our proposed model is also embedded with Gas detection and Temperature sensors to get a clear understanding of the arena’s environment so that the rescue team can take necessary precautions before performing the rescue operation.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Design of a Wide Band microstrip patch antenna for X-band and Ku-band Applications 2021-11-30T09:42:24-05:00 B. Siva Hari Prasad T. Madhu Priya T. Pavan Kumar B. Vamsi N. Venkaiah Babu <p style="text-align: justify;">In this paper, various structures of patch antennas are designed with FR4 substrate material. All the proposed antennas are designed without distorting the ground. For simulations, industrially accessible High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) is used in this investigation. The characteristics like VSWR, Return loss, Axial ratio are studied and based on the results the best structure is selected which resonates at two frequencies one in the X-band (8GHz-12GHz) and the other in the Ku-band (12GHz-18Ghz). The s11 value crosses the -20 dB line at both resonant frequencies (8.96GHz and 13.36GHz) and the VSWR has an average value of 1.5 at both resonant frequencies. The proposed patch antenna structures are excited with lumped port and discussed below.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ANALYSIS OF GREEN BUILDING TECHNIQUE PERCEPTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ITS IMPENDIMENTS 2021-11-30T09:47:03-05:00 Manav Prajapati Rushabh Shah <p style="text-align: justify;">Inventory In construction industries there is a vital role of building sector which contribute the larger amount of co2 (climate change) with its high energy footprint. Green building plays and important role towards the potential of building sector and reducing the greenhouse gases at low cost and gives environmentally friendly or healthy buildings. In addition the green building give the sustainable advantages towards green building or climate changes like reduction in electricity and water consumption, reduction in waste generation , use of green and less energy-thoroughgoing materials in construction and preservation of greenery. Although the economic advantage is also offered by green building. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively identify, rank and prioritize the barriers to the adoption of green building using the RII method . Results from RII method of 70 questionnaire survey responses from GB experts around the Surat city are presented. The study identifies 27 specific barriers which are classified in five categories- (1) Attitude and Market Barriers; (AMB) (2) Financial and Economic Barriers (FEB) (3) Information, knowledge and Education Barriers,(IKEB)(4) Management and government Barriers (MGB) (5) Technology and training.(TTB). Three group of stakeholder were taken part architects, contractor &amp; project engineer took part in the ranking and prioritization of barriers. Calculation of local and global weight reveals that (IKA) barriers are ranked high and MG comes second where FE and TT where get lag much behind with lower global weights among the top 10 specific barrier unfamiliarity with gb technologies, lack of knowledge and awareness of gb technologies and their benefits, limited experience with the use of non traditional procurement methods, lack of reliable gb technologies research and education etc . From the perspective of gb experts, this study contributes to the body of knowledge about GB barriers.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICATION (MQL) DURING CONVENTIONAL MACHINING OPERATIONS: A REVIEW 2021-11-30T09:50:21-05:00 Sukhdev Gangwar Dr. P. Sudhakar Rao <p style="text-align: justify;">In machining operation lubrication is very epochal phenomenon, which requires a lubricant, generally liquid, to reduce the friction and the generated heat at the tool- workpiece interface. MQL is the technique of lubrication in which very less amount of lubricant is used with high pressure air and it is injected at the cutting zone with the help of nozzle. Fumes formed during the flood cooling cause harm to the environment but in MQL the amount of fumes is very low due to use of very small amount of lubricant in comparison to former one. Due to less amount of lubricant used there is reduction of cost of lubrication. In this work we are going to review one of the lubricating methods, called minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) which is also known as near dry machining.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 REVIEW ON REAL TIME CONTROL OF LATHE MACHINE DURING TURNING OPERATIONS 2021-11-30T09:54:42-05:00 Santosh Gangwar Dr. P. Sudhakar Rao <p style="text-align: justify;">In present days lathe machine is very useful in various industries in various operations like turning, machining, cutting, threading, knurling etc. Although lathe machines are very economical but now a day, CNC (Computer Numeric Control) took place of conventional lathe machine. But some changes make lathe as useful as CNC machine, which is useful either for skilled operators or unskilled operators. This conversion from conventional lathe to semi-automated lathe is basically done by retrofitting. In this project we used variable frequency derive, microcontroller, sensor to control the speed, and made lathe semi-automatic. In this we give input in the form of speed with the help of mobile phone or keypad. We can say we make lathe semi-automatic on IOT(Internet of Things) based, which provide high accuracy, high productivity and reduce set up cost as CNC machine has high set up cost.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 NEURAL NETWORK BASED MODELLING FOR PREDICTION OF RESPONSE VARIABLES IN MACHINING PROCESSES: A REVIEW 2021-11-30T09:57:27-05:00 Sumit Kumar Dr. P. Sudhakar Rao <p style="text-align: justify;">The omnipresence of artificial intelligence in manufacturing domain draws the inspiration for the present article. ANN, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithm and Support Vector Machines are few of the AI techniques mostly used in manufacturing sector. Present article attempts to review the significant work carried out using Artificial Neural Networks for the prediction of various response variables in the manufacturing domain. ANN is widely used for the prediction purposes owing to its capabilities to handle complex problems without going much into mathematical computations and its similarity with the cognitive system of human beings. The ever rising competition in manufacturing industry calls for the least time investment for maintenance procedures so as to increase the productivity and hence a lot of research is going on to predict the response variables for deciding the optimum cutting parameters.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Seismic Performance of Soft Storey using Carbon Strands and Steel Strands in a G+4 R.C Frame Building 2021-11-30T10:00:17-05:00 Sujith Velloor Sudarsanakumar B. J Panchal K. A Parmar <p style="text-align: justify;">Reinforced Concrete Frame Building are becoming increasingly common in urban India. Many such building constructed in recent times have a special feature - open ground storey for the purpose of parking. The presence of walls in upper stories makes building many times stiffer in the upper stories than in the open ground storey. During past earthquake several collapse had been observed due to soft storey effect. The strengthening of soft storey using shear walls and bracing is studied by many researchers. Alternative method to strengthen the soft storey by using carbon strands and steel strands has been studied. In the present study, the performance of carbon strands and steel strands is analysed by tying at first floor to ground with varying angle. The comparative study has been carried out using carbon strands and steel strands of a G+4 R.C Frame Building. The performance of building is assessed based on linear static and dynamic analysis using Etabs software.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 CLASSIFICATION OF RED TIDE ALGAE IMAGES USING GENERALIZED FEEDFORWARD NEURAL NETWORK 2021-11-30T10:04:46-05:00 Miss. Nidhi S. Rangari Dr. V.L Agrawal <p style="text-align: justify;">In this paper a new classification algorithm is proposed for the Classification of Red tide algae images. In order to develop algorithm 154 red tide algae SEM images have been considered, So as to create calculation 154 red tide algae SEM image have been considered, With a view to extricate highlights from the red tide green growth SEM images after image preparing, a calculation proposes WHT changed coefficients. The Efficient classifiers dependent on Generalized feed forward neural network(GFF). A different Cross-Validation dataset is utilized for legitimate assessment of the proposed characterization calculation as for essential execution measures, for example, MSE and arrangement exactness. The Average Classification Accuracy of GFF Neural Network including one hidden layers with 20 PE's sorted out in a run of the mill topology is observed to be unrivalled (96.66 %) for Training and crossvalidation. At last, ideal calculation has been created based on the best classifier execution. The calculation will give a powerful option in contrast to customary technique for Red tide algae SEM images examination for Classify the five sort of Red tide algae SEM images.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EFFECT OF POLYPROPYLENE AND STEEL FIBRES ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE 2021-11-30T10:07:50-05:00 M. Veera Reddy <p style="text-align: justify;">Concrete is the most widely used construction material due to its inherent properties. In recent years, researchers have focused to reduce the brittleness of concrete. One way of improving the ductile behaviour of concrete is the addition of fibres to the concrete. In this study, the strength properties of Hybrid fibre reinforced concrete (HFRC) have been presented. The workability and compressive strength are studied for different proportions HFRC like 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% by volume of concrete and in each proportion the polypropylene fibres (ppf) and steel fibres (stf) are added in the ratio of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 to get hybrid fibres. It is found that the workability and strength reduced due to increase of polypropylene fibre content.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A REVIEW ON DEVELOPMENT OF TOOLPATH STRATEGIES IN INCREMENTAL SHEET FORMING 2021-11-30T10:10:25-05:00 Shah Abhi Kulin Prof. Hardik R. Dodiya <p style="text-align: justify;">Incremental sheet forming is one of the promising technology which is appropriate for rapid prototyping and diminutive batch production. ISF technology produces green and efficient products which satisfy customer’s diversified demands. The above novel approach increases global efficiency in production process. There are various process parameters which influence the responses of Incremental Sheet Forming but the most critical process parameter is toolpath strategy. Different toolpath strategies have significant effect on different responses used in dieless forming. So an extensive development and variation to toolpath strategies have been made to bring the responses within the possible limits according to the requirement of customers. The study of influence of different<br>toolpath strategies have been made on various responses like surface finish, formability, wall thinning and geometric accuracy in this literature review.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PERFORMANCE OF UHPC CONTAINING NANO AL2O3 PARTICLES EXPOSED TO SEAWATER 2021-11-30T10:13:06-05:00 S. Karnal Preeth K. Mahendran <p style="text-align: justify;">The present research work deals about seawater attack of ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) with different percentage of nano Al2O3 powder has been investigated at the age of 30 days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days exposure period. The cement was partially replaced by nano Al2O3 powder at 0.5 %, 1 %, 1.5 %, 2 %, and 3 % by weight. The change in weight and change in strength loss of UHPC were measured, after sea water attack for the 30 days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days of the exposure period. The results of this research work clearly showed that nano Al2O3 was optimum replacement improved the resistance against the Seawater attack in UHPC. Because of the smaller size and higher surface area of nano Al2O3 particles play the main role in microstructure and reduced<br>porosity and water transport properties of UHPC.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PROPOSAL OF REDESIGN OF SPEED HUMP NEAR EDUCATIONAL ZONES: A CASE STUDY OF BILIMORA 2021-11-30T10:18:08-05:00 Nikunj Tandel Sanket Bagadia <p style="text-align: justify;">Speed hump is one of the most popular and economical traffic calming devices used globally. Speed humps are typically used in local streets of residential areas, school, college or university campuses, hospitals, etc. Speed humps are mostly designed to reduce speed of motorized vehicles. However the impacts of speed humps on nonmotorized users have not been taken into consideration while designing and installing speed hump. The bicyclists suffer from discomfort, vibration, low back pain while daily passing over hump. This study aims to reduce the discomfort caused by different geometry speed hump on bicyclists. In this study, a questionnaire survey of bicyclists was conducted at four schools of Bilimora city. A questionnaire was prepared and only bicyclists were interviewed. Variables such as height of hump, age of participant, gender of participant and frequency of using hump were used to predict discomfort level. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to develop a statistical relationship between the variables. Discomfort model was successfully developed and validated with the help of SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software. Results of questionnaire survey have shown that 86% of bicyclists feel discomfort while passing over hump and hence it is necessary to enhance riding comfort of bicyclists. Hence this study proposed a redesign of speed hump to reduce discomfort to bicyclists.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 HIGH LEVELSECURITY FOR OUTGOING WOMEN & CHILDREN BY AUTOMATIC SENSING OF THREATS USING IOT 2021-11-30T10:20:52-05:00 R. Elakiya Dr. M. Saravanan <p style="text-align: justify;">In our Country, despite the fact that it has super power and a financial improvement, yet at the same time there are numerous wrongdoings against ladies. The barbarities against the ladies can be finished with the assistance. This gadget is a security framework, uncommonly intended for ladies in trouble. Strategy/Analysis: Using microcontroller for the equipment gadget is the most proficient and it devours less power. Here utilize radio recurrence flag indicator to recognize concealed cameras. Discoveries: here broke down that there is no security gadget for our all-out wellbeing. The client needs to convey different gadgets. We found a security gadget which has every one of the highlights. Applications/Improvements: In this project I utilized microcontroller and android application in which both the gadget and the advanced cell are synchronized utilizing Bluetooth, henceforth both can be activated freely. It can record sound for further examination and can give an alarm call and message to the pre-set contacts with the moment area like clockwork and can be followed live utilizing our application. Shrouded camera finder is additionally an unmistakable element utilizing which I will guarantee of my protection. It will save the women within limited time period and can monitor the every location with the current address. It will be easy to protect the women’s from the abnormal condition by sensing the human body of the heartbeat, temperature and motion sensor. It senses the threshold value of the different sensors with the normal value of human body. The device is to send the collected data to the police control room and parents. The gathered data is to be useful to save the women from the tragedy. In this project, I send an alert call to the guardians who are placed within 20 meter feet from the mobile users. It will help the women to save and protect easily.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHEST BUTTERFLY MACHINE FOR POWER GENERATION 2021-11-30T10:24:31-05:00 Ankur Patel Nikhil Patel Mihir R Patel Mihir Patel Harikrushna Prajapati <p style="text-align: justify;">Today among the scientific community field of energy conservation has become an increasingly notable subject. As we know major part of production of electricity done by thermal power plant, hydro power plant, nuclear power plant which provide power to all sector. But they have some drawback also such as high initial cost, high maintenance cost, environmental pollution. So there is need for saving energy and requirement an alternate energy source which is cheap, proposal for the utilization of waste energy of power generation by gym equipment is very much revenant and important for highly populated countries like India the people are crazy about gym. Natural fuel used is increased due to industrial development and these sources oils, coal, Natural gas reservoirs are limited. The resulting direct current is converting into the AC level, it will use to light bulb, laptop and mobile charging, musical system and other application. In Different Type of Gym equipment use for human fitness and human loss energy to use in the different type to convert in to electricity</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Brief Reviews of Methods for Embedded Predefined Interfaces in Finite Elements Analysis 2021-11-30T11:02:44-05:00 Rahul Sharma Hafizullah Amin Megha Gupta <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper presents all reviews of the new methods embedded predefined interfaces infinite element analysis of the structure A latest methods design for embed predefined interfaces infinite elements analysis of structure within the arbitrary finite elements meshing is proposed and demonstrated for embed structures analysis. Within a given finite element analysis, the initiation of fracture or slippage may occur simultaneously along a predefined interface and in the bulk of the element of structure analysis. In order to determine which surface is very critical, we feature a criterion which aids in determining the correct surface upon which all further slippage due to fracture will occurrence of the analysis. The algorithm for generating these predefined surfaces is detailed and subsequently applied to, but by no means limited to, masonry problems to demonstrate its efficacy. This interface method is cast in the framework of an enhanced strain finite element which is capable of capturing softening along an embedded strong discontinuity of the finite element analysis.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF SERIES HYBRID MODULAR MULTILEVEL CONVERTER 2021-11-30T11:06:54-05:00 Amar Fulwala Mukesh Bhesaniya <p style="text-align: justify;">Recent research on modular multilevel converter (MMC) have brought numerous advantages of it in high power applications. However, main drawback of MMC is lack of DC fault blocking. Hence, hybrid configurations consist of MMC and two-level converters are investigated to overcome the drawbacks of MMC. These converters offer the advantages of both these configurations and also help in blocking DC fault. In this paper harmonic analysis of series hybrid MMC is presented. Series hybrid MMC consists of two-level converter and series connections of fullbridge modules on ac side. The two-level converters gives square wave output which operates at fundamental frequency and series connections of full bridge modules act as filters and absorbs the difference of square wave and required multilevel waveform. The series modules are operated with pulse width modulation and hence the harmonic spectrum of output voltage waveform is improved.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A STUDY ON THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF LIGHTWEIGHT GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE 2021-11-30T11:10:24-05:00 Raj Chavda Ankur Bhogayata <p style="text-align: justify;">The present research work deals with the preliminary investigations on the development of the lightweight Geopolymer concrete (LWGPC). The objective of the study is to develop the LWGPC for the applications in reducing the thermal conductivity and reduction of the structural dead load. The scope of the study includes mix design, tests on constituents, preparation of alkaline solution and tests on the mixes for obtaining the strength properties of LWGPC. The study includes innovative usage of expanded clay aggregates, recycled plastic aggregates, recycled fly ash bricks aggregates toward the achievement of the weight reduction of the conventional GPC. The study is focused on obtaining the compressive and splitting tensile strength of the GPC specimens containing the lightweight aggregates of varying types. The results revealed that the usage of the expanded clay aggregates reduced the weight of the GPC up to 50% at the full replacement of the natural aggregates. Though the strength properties did not show a noticeable improvement, the material may be utilized for the light to medium intensity of the loads for various field applications.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EVOLUTION OF QUALITY OF EXPERIENCE FOR ULTRA HD VIDEO STREAMING IN NETWORK MANAGEMENT 2021-11-30T11:10:27-05:00 K. Arthi R. Gomathi <p style="text-align: justify;">In this paper we introduce the video streaming with enhanced security and speed of the video processing. The system mainly concentrate on building a Quality of Experience (QoE)-aware video adaption system that uses the scalable H.265 encoded UHD video stream. The proposed model is the client server based model. The main objective of the proposed model is to ensure high accuracy, speed of the video streaming and enhanced security.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Recent Developments in Electro Chemical Machining- A Review 2021-11-30T11:20:50-05:00 Ashish Kumar P.S. Rao <p style="text-align: justify;">Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a technique of removing metal by an electrochemical method. It is typically used for mass production and is used for working enormously hard materials or materials that are difficult to machine by conventional techniques. ECM give an enhanced alternative in producing precise 3-D complex shaped and components which are difficult-to-machined by conventional methods.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this paper is to study some electrochemical processes for material removal. The parameters such as tool feed rate and the applied voltage also plays a vital role in increasing the material removal rate. Higher surface quality, low tool wear, higher in material removal rate have been studied by using modern unconventional machining process like electrochemical machining operations.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Review on Bluetooth Technology with BLE 5.0 2021-11-30T11:20:13-05:00 Disha Purohit S.K. Hadia Brijesh Shah <p style="text-align: justify;">Bluetooth is short range wireless technology network, which is managed by SIG (Special Interest Group). Bluetooth technology has started from cable replacement and it has been continued to Low Energy and then Mesh Technology. As per requirements of Application Development, different specifications are available in the market. Every specification has their own pros and cons. Specification of Bluetooth 5.0 is known as Low Energy Device. The study of BLE 5.0 demonstrates Design and performance evolution of BLE 5.0 at Link Layer and PHY. The Link Layer and Physical Layer (PHY) of the BLE 5.0 architecture are used in controller. It has been decreases complexity of hardware and power consumption. The designing language of the Link Layer and PHY is synthesizable Verilog.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARM BASED COMMUNICATION AND SECURITY SYSTEM FOR DISABLED PERSONS 2021-11-30T11:23:47-05:00 Bhavani M.V.L Nagalakshmi S Gopikrishna U Susheel kumar CH Gurunadh N.V.M <p style="text-align: justify;">Communication is the vital thing that humans can perform, without communication we can’t survive in this growing world. But for some disabled persons it is not an ordinary thing to do. They have to struggle a lot in order to communicate between themselves and with other people. Initially there are some traditional methods for communication for those disabled persons like American Sign Language, pictorial boards, Braille output etc. But they have not succeeded up to the mark. So we are going to provide an effective solution for this problem through our proposed methodology in an extend to that we are also providing security for those people. Whenever they are in any emergency condition their GPS coordinates will be sent to their relatives through GSM module. This is a portable technology which makes use of ARM7, flex sensors. In this way we are going to fulfill the communication gap for disabled persons.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ESTIMATION OF THE HEAT RELEASE RATE OF COMPARTMENT FIRES USING INVERSE FIRE MODELING WITH GENETIC ALGORITHM 2021-11-30T11:33:15-05:00 Shiv Kumar S Ravindra Budania Amit Kumawat Dr. B. S. Singhvi <p style="text-align: justify;">A sudden accident or a natural catastrophe that causes great damage or loss of life. From these hazards fire incidents are the major accidents that hamper the progress and well being of mankind. Inverse Fire Model (IFM) is one of them, it can estimate the average heat release rate inside a building in an attempt to aid fire fighting operations. In this article, one separate compartments was made to represent an office that a fire may occur. Size of compartment was 10m x 10m x 3m. IFM are used to estimate the fire size in compartment. The IFM model describes the intensity of fire, fire conditions, inside a building. This model also tries to evaluate the fire conditions by employing the GA. The GA can use multiple parameters like MLR, vent dimensions, HRR etc. Another advantage of GA is that one can arrive at the ideal solution by giving different values of parameter in algorithms. This would result in getting a situation that it is very much near to the real values.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AUGMENTED REALITY IN MOBILE DEVICES 2021-11-30T11:29:14-05:00 Preetkumar R. Shah Vaibhav B. Parmar Jahnvi J. Patel <p style="text-align: justify;">In a world of new technologies, Augmented Reality (AR) came up with a felicitated position. The Mobile devices Company admired the popularity of Augmented Reality, in recent development in smart phone technology that granted power to the popularity of Augmented Reality in mobile devices. How augmented reality is different from virtual reality, and additionally we completely concentrate on the technology that is used for developing Augmented Reality application that is used to improve user experience. The secondary purpose of this technology is to help people to understand the practical usage, applications of Augmented Reality in different areas furthermore, discussing the existing problems and a generic framework required for its development</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 SENTIMENT ANALYSIS ON TOURIST REVIEWS FOR PLACE RECOMMENDATION USING WORD EMBEDDINGS 2021-11-30T11:37:41-05:00 Singh pooja o <p style="text-align: justify;">Multi-label sentence classification is a very popular technique to categorize text into several classes now-adays. The classification process may vary based on the type of text used such as tourist review, crime data, weather forecast data, accident data, airline services etc. Text data has become an important part of data analytics thanks to advances in natural language processing that transform unstructured text into meaningful data. Individuals utilize online different websites, pages, portals etc to express their interests, opinions or reviews regarding the user experience they had while using any product or services. And majority time the reviews of the users in the online world serves as references and recommendation for other user’s weather to use the particular product or not based on positive and negative reviews of the same product or service. We would be using a combination of Word2Vec and Glove which we suppose individually is powerful natural language processing techniques for sentiment analysis on tourist data. Here With this dissertation we would like to focus more on the problem that similar words cause during the processing of text, in the proposed work we will be more focused words that are used in similar ways to result in having similar representations, naturally capturing their meaning along with positive and negative review classification using machine learning.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Whole Slide Image Processing for Breast Cancer Diagnosis From Digitized Histopathology: A Survey on CBHIR 2021-11-30T11:36:23-05:00 Dr. Dhanraj R. Dhotre Renuka Pramod Arbat <p style="text-align: justify;">The diagnosis of breast cancer using histopathological images is a exigent task. The accurate diagnosis with histopathological images is a difficult work due to the variety of breast lesions and the slight difference between sub-categories of lesions in histopathological images. It is also challenging to retrieve contently similar regions from histopathological whole slide images (WSIs) for regions of interest (ROIs) in different size. This work is to detect the application CBHIR framework for database that consists of WSIs and size-scalable query ROIs.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PERTURB AND OBSERVATION (MPPT) ALGORITHM WITH BOOST CONVERTER TOPOLOGY FOR PV SYSTEM 2021-11-30T11:41:19-05:00 Samira Sadat Jatinkumar Patel <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper Presents utilization of a boost converter to control photovoltaic power system using Maximum Power Point Tracking (P&amp; O method). In this paper a boost converter is used with a Maximum Power Point Tracking control mechanism. The Maximum Power Point Tracking is used to extract and maintain the maximum possible power from the photovoltaic cell output and feed it to the load through the boost converter.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Experimental study on light weight concrete by partial replacement of cement by flyash, coarse aggregate pumice stone and polystyrene beads: A Review 2021-11-30T11:46:04-05:00 Harris jameel Saranya ilango <p style="text-align: justify;">In today’s world when focus is on reducing self weight of concrete, light weight concrete has came with the high number of applications to reduce self weight of concrete. In developing countries where lot of construction work is to be done light weight concrete will be of major importance and use as it provides flexibility in structure. This paper presents a review on the significant applications and advantages of using lightweight concrete in the field of civil engineering and to find a significant replacement of conventional materials by light weight materials and verify it experimentally. In the present research focus is given on replacing cement by flyash and coarse aggregate by pumice stone and polystyrene beads by proper percentage to be used as structural concrete.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF STEEL-CONCRETE-STEEL BEAM: A REVIEW 2021-11-30T11:48:19-05:00 Khalid ahmed Saranya Ilango <p style="text-align: justify;">Steel-concrete-steel (SCS) beam comprises of a concrete core sandwiched in between two steel cover plates which are interconnected by shear connectors. The shear connectors prevent the uplift of the steel cover plates and hold the concrete core in position. Conventional RCC beams undergo huge damage due spalling of concrete when subjected to sudden shock loading and the conventional steel structures undergo drastic failure under fire loading due to high thermal conductivity. The SCS construction technique overcomes the disadvantages of conventional construction. In SCS system the high tensile strength of steel cover plates combines along with the high compressive strength of concrete enhancing the structural integrity, ductility, energy absorbing capacity and strength of the system. The use of composite construction has been increasing in recent years because of its high strength to weight ratio, efficient design, better structural performance and significant economies of cost and construction time. Some of the structural systems currently in practice are Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SFRC), Profiled Steel Sheeting Reinforced Concrete (PSSRC), Laced Reinforced Concrete (LRC) and Steel–Concrete–Steel Sandwich (SCSS) composite. Among these alternative systems of construction, S-C-C construction is found to possess properties that are promising for higher flexural strength, impact and fire resistant structures. In this paper the numerical and analytical studies carried out to study the performance of SCS beams has been discussed.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Seismic Analysis of G+20 Steel-Concrete Composite Building with Regular and Irregular Shaped Building 2021-11-30T11:51:04-05:00 Nauka Patel Assistant Prof. Ridhi Vora <p style="text-align: justify;">Composite construction involves more than one type of material which are not similar to each other. In Composite structures ductility of steel and weight of RCC structure is combined to provide and economical and durable structure. Present research work involves seismic analysis of G+20 steel-concrete composite building. Building with regular and irregular plan E-shaped are compared for base shears and drift for each storey. Two models for each are analysed with beam and column size same throughout the height and other with beam and column size changing at every 5th storey. Equivalent static analysis will be carried out using IS 1893-2016. Storey<br>drifts will be calculated at each floor levels. Seismic behaviour of building will be evaluated from above. Response spectrum analysis will be carried out in ETABS.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 LOW VOLTAGE RIDE THROUGH CAPABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF PV POWER PLANT BASED ON BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM 2021-11-30T11:53:12-05:00 Samira Sadat Jatin kumar <p style="text-align: justify;">By increasing the electricity demand, the need for the application of renewable energy sources in the traditional transmission and distribution systems feels more than before. This paper presents Low Voltage Ride Through Capability enhancement of photovoltaic (PV) power plants based on battery energy storage system. This system consists of PV arrays connected to the point of common coupling (PCC), a grid tied inverter, battery energy storage system (BESS). The LVRT Capability based battery energy storage system is verified by the simulation results, which are carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. So the proposed model improves the LVRT capability of the PV Power Plants in such a way that the DG power conversion unit remains connected to the grid even during fault conditions.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL STUDY OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER BY VARYING THE INNER RADII OF CORRUGATED TUBE 2021-11-30T11:44:59-05:00 GAUTAM HARSHKUMAR KISHORKUMAR Dr. MANISH MEHTA Asst.Prof. JUGAL SHAH <p style="text-align: justify;">Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger in which It is Fixed Tube-sheet and Counter Flow Type Heat Exchanger. In this research contain the analysis and comparison between plain tubes used Shell and tube heat exchanger and corrugated tubed used shell and tube heat exchanger system with different thickness. In this research thermal analysis of the shell and tube heat exchanger. In this solid works 2014 is used for geometrical modelling. And also TEMA standards are used for starting the experimental structure. Which are validate in ansys. Make prototype experiment model of shell and tube heat exchanger in which plain and corrugated tube is use one after one and also take reading for thermal analysis calculation and compare with Experiment Result to CFD Analysis result for validation. In Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Software use Solid Works for Geometry &amp; Modelling, ICEM CFD (ANSYS) for Meshing and Fluent for Analysis. After doing experiment work &amp; computational work will got the result for increasing heat transfer rate. Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers are used as process heat exchangers in the petroleum-refining and chemical industries. It is used as steam generator, condensers, boiler feed water heater, and oil coolers in power plant.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Experimental Study of Concrete Strength Properties Using Red Mud (bauxite residue) as a partial replacement of binder content for M25 grade of Concrete 2021-11-30T11:55:46-05:00 Moh Juned Mr. Anwar Ahmad <p style="text-align: justify;">Now a day, various investigations and study has been presently going on to prepare an alternative or sustainable material for concreting. Now day’s construction cost is very high with using conventional materials due to unavailability of natural materials. The problem can be solved by partial replacement of cement. The study is conducted to analyze the workability, compressive strength and split tensile strength of the concrete.Using partial replacement of Pozzolona Portland cement with red mud (Bauxite Residue). The thesis work focuses on the suitability of red mud obtained for construction. Five test groups will be constituted with the replacement percentages 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, of red mud, for M-25 grade of concrete and is tested for optimum percentage.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparison between New RCC Structure (Bridge) and Old RCC Structure (Bridge) By Using Load Tests and NDT Tests 2021-11-30T11:58:04-05:00 Kinjarapu Lakshmu Naidu Surapu Ramlal Dr. G.Tirupathi Naidu <p style="text-align: justify;">Now a days, cement concrete plays a major role in constriction industries in which strength of concrete is given the at most importance. There will be depreciation in strength increases which leads to spalling of concrete. The spallings of concrete means leads to the reduction of the strength. In this case study, an old bridge &amp; new bridge constructed in the same location are assessed. The load tests and NDT tests were conducted on new bridge pile foundations, where as NDT tests were conducted on old bridge and new bridge. After assessments if proper measures values were not achieved then accidents will be inevitable. Using this load tests and NDT tests we find out strength of concrete, finding cracks and voids, settlement ect. So these load tests and NDT tests is lowing the broad sense to refer the material of concrete and examined also. The load tests &amp; NDT tests are carried out on new bridge, NDT tests were conducted on old bridge which are located at NH-16 (old NH-5) Ch.655+573. The type of load tests is vertical load test, lateral load test, dynamic load test, integrity testing is done on pile foundation and the NDT test are done i.e. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) test, Rebound hammer test, core cutter test, profometer test on various components of New and old Bridge. My ultimate aim is the comparison between new and old bridges by using load test and NDT test</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON QUICK SETTING ALKALI ACTIVATED CONCRETE 2021-11-30T12:01:12-05:00 Ravikumar D. Padsumbiya Prof. Shemal Dave <p style="text-align: justify;">Alkali activated concrete (AAC), gained significant attention by researchers, educators and construction practitioners during past decades. Due to its rapid strength gain and better mechanical properties it proved better alternative to cement concrete. However, its field application is still limited due poor workability and lack of data. Moreover traditional AAC required an elevated curing, which again was a major drawback for in situ construction. Many researchers have tried to eliminate this drawback by using different pozzolanic binders and came up with the AAC that doesn’t required any heat curing. This research paper represents strength parameter of AAC cured at ambient temperature and tested at the age of seven days for compressive strength test, splitting tensile strength test and flexural strength test. Three different pozzolanic binder Fly ash (FA), Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and silica fume (SF) have been used to prepare ambient cured AAC.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EVOLUATION OF COMPACTION AND STABILIZATION OF BLACK COTTON SOIL BY USING ADMIXTURES AS MARBLE DUST 2021-11-30T12:03:29-05:00 Rishi bhalavada Viny Mehta Prof. Ajay bindlish <p style="text-align: justify;">Black cotton soils are widely dispersed around the world, and are a wellspring of extraordinary harm to framework . The issue with Black cotton soils has been recorded everywhere throughout the world. In storm, they soak up water and swell and in summer, they shrivel on dissipation of water there from. The target of study is to assess the attainability of mechanical waste like marble dust as soil adjustment material. To research the impact of marble dust on file properties of dark cotton soil, a progression of lab tests have been led on Black cotton soil tests blended with 0% to 40% of marble dust by weight of dry soil. The Rapid development of ventures of marble produces risky waste materials at a vast degree which makes a major issue to the people encompassing them just as goes about as a contamination, so influence the biological arrangement of the earth. There is noteworthy improvement in the file properties of the dark cotton soil on expansion of marble dust into it. The broad conduct of the dirt has decreased as it were. From the examination of test outcomes, it was discovered that California bearing proportion expanded with an expansion in marble powder content.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Exhaust Gases Purifier of I.C Engine with Electricity Generation 2021-11-30T12:06:31-05:00 Lakhvinder Singh Saini Harsh V Patel Kandarp Trivedi Dishank Shah Pratik Patel <p style="text-align: justify;">Now a day as pollution is increasing we are using wet scrubber technique as a part of our project work. In this technique there are three chambers. The first chamber is of wet scrubber type In second chamber there is cotton and net attached to it and the third chamber is for reservoir of water and NaOH mixture. By this technique ,absorption of pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2), unburned hydrocarbons(UHC),oxides of nitrogen(NOX), lead and other particulate emissions from the diesel engines. These pollutants are the root cause for the air pollution. So this is a device used to control the solid and gaseous pollutants from stationary Internal Combustion Engine exhaust streams. In this project scrubber was designed and fabricated. After that the setup was used in the IC Engine to reduce the pollution by chemical absorption method. Also we are simultaneously generating Electricity which we can be used in Electricity supply. The various chemical absorbents such as Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Potassium hydroxide (KOH), Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) are used for experimental works. But in our project we are using NaOH as an absorbent. Finally, the results were compared with the performance of diesel engine with and without experimental setup.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 NON-LINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS WITH TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIALS: A REVIEW 2021-11-30T12:13:31-05:00 Samina Nusrat Haiyah Qureshi <p style="text-align: justify;">NLFEA conducted to simulate simply supported reinforced concrete beam over their depth with temperature differentials tested at room ( 15oC ) and low temperature ( 25oC ).Three dimensional FE modals were developed to verify geometry, material, loading, boundary conditions and temperature profile. The results are verified against experimental values in terms of cracking loads, yield loads and cracking pattern. The validated NLFEA models are explored with same beams, uniform temperature as well as statically indeterminate reinforced concrete with or without temperature differentials. The values were capable of predicting the ultimate strength at both room and low temperature. In addition to this, it was observed clearly indeterminacy of fixed ends increases the strength of reinforced concrete beam ( upto 110% ). NLFEA showed that low temperature increases the strength of beam without stirrups.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 TRAFFIC SCENARIO OF SELECTED URBAN AREA-MODASA CITY 2021-11-30T12:16:22-05:00 Jaimin Panchal Priyanka Verma Guide-Kalpeshsinh Solanki <p style="text-align: justify;">India is experiencing rapid urbanization with the present urbanization levels at 30% translating to a population of roughly 340 million living in urban areas. India was the fourth largest motor vehicle/car manufacturer in the world in 2016. Traffic congestion is a major problem at an intersection in urban areas. The main aim of this study is to analysis traffic scenario in selected Urban area – Modasa city also evaluation transportation system on the existing road system in Modasa city. In this study an attempt is made to solve the problem of traffic congestion and unusual delay to the traffic movement in Modasa city by analysis of traffic scenario. Analysis of traffic scenario is very important. As the evaluation of traffic scenario directly related with several traffic and motorist’s parameters such as travel time, delays, accidents, parking studies, spot speed studies, classified traffic volume count, operation costs, environmental factors, etc. This analysis determine the significant parameters for traffic congestion and helpful to reduce the traffic congestion in urban area.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ROAD SAFETY AUDIT FOR SELECTED ROAD LINKS IN ARVALLI 2021-11-30T12:19:25-05:00 Nilay G. Prajapati Prof. Kalpeshsinh J. Solanki <p style="text-align: justify;">In Most regions of the world, the epidemic of road traffic fatalities is on the upsurge with over 1.2 million people die every year due to road crashes and about 50 million suffer nonfatal injuries. According to Ministry of Road Transport &amp; Highways (MORT&amp;H) India, the analysis of road accident data 2016 reveals that about 1,374 accidents and 413 deaths take place every day on Indian roads which further translates into 55 accidents and 17 deaths on an average every hour in ur country. The goal of this study is to understand roadway accident causes in selected route and reducing the frequency and severity of crashes on selected roadways. To achieve such a goal, traffic accident data, roadway geometric data, traffic volume data, surface condition data for the selected linking road are collected and analyzed. Develop models for accident rates and priority index. Determine Present Serviceability Index. It also aims to reduce fatal accidents and serious injury and to develop road accident model for selected road links.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Performance Evaluation of Waste Rubber, Steel Curls and Epoxy Resin In Concrete 2021-11-30T12:42:57-05:00 Maulik Tala Assistant Prof. Hardik Kharva <p style="text-align: justify;">Now a days, the waste tyre rubber and steel curls becomes most significant environment problem in global level. In day to day life waste tyre rubber and steel curls need to be dispose due to increase in the auto mobile production and Lathe industries wastes. The increase of these wastes produce rapid reduction of available site for waste disposal in many countries. Due to this problem many countries try to find out best replacement solution to dispose waste tyre rubber and reuse waste steel curls. Waste tyre rubber and steel curls with epoxy resin give good strength with light weight, elasticity, energy absorption, sound and insulating nature so that we can use this material in construction industry. In this project the density and compressive strength of concrete utilizing waste tire rubber, steel curls and epoxy resin has been studied. Waste tire rubber, steel curls and epoxy resin has been used in this study to replace the fine and coarse aggregate by weight using different percentages (10%, 20% &amp; 66%). We know that the strength and the bonding between rubber particles and steel curls in concrete mix is the main significant in this study. So we try to determine the strength of rubcrete by using steel curls and different types of epoxy resins and check the properties of rubcrete cubes.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PERFORMANCE STUDY OF AODV ROUTING PROTOCOL USING SUMO ON NS2 SIMULATION 2021-11-30T12:49:56-05:00 Kavita Srivastava <p style="text-align: justify;">In Critical view of AODV, that network is not active when establishes the network. In these situations nodes need a connection to Adhoc network. So AODV have played an important role for established the strong connection between the two nodes or more. The important task is how to find busy nodes and allocate to next nodes with new routes through a protocol. A various numbers of routing protocols with different network situations are analyzed to find maximum or minimum path from a Start to End. This paper highlighted evaluation of routing protocol AODV protocol on VANET. For simulation of VANET the real time traffic scenario file has been generated using SUMO and the network simulation has been performed using NS2 Visualize software.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 SEISMIC STRENGTHENING OF HIGH RISE STRUCTURES BY PASSIVE DISSIPATING SYSTEMS (DAMPER): A Review 2021-11-30T12:53:28-05:00 Bikram Raj Gyawali Nishant Kumar <p style="text-align: justify;">In recent years, the concept of structural control has taken a critical role in the sector of seismic design of civil structures. Because of urbanization and industrialization there is not a single space to construct the structures. So, human are showing keen interest to buy sky rather than the land. For the construction of high rise building a safer and more economical design needs to be done by adding the systematic innovative devices which reduce the forces and deformations in structure mostly caused by the earthquake ground motion, wind and sometimes tsunami. In order to enhance the capability of structure to with stand earthquake or wind load, installation of passive energy dissipating devices are widely used in the engineering field. Use of dampers enhances the performance of the buildings during seismic and wind excitations. There are various types of dampers available now a day’s which can be installed in high rise buildings depending on the need and requirement. This review paper investigates the usefulness of passive dissipating system (damper) in seismic strengthening of high rise structures.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ASTUDY ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE BY PARTIALLY REPLACEMENT OF FLY ASH AND ROBO SAND 2021-11-30T12:56:16-05:00 K. Bhagavan Das V. Santhi M. Srihari P. Srinath Vankayalapati Raghu <p style="text-align: justify;">The Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) which is widely used materials not consumes significant amount of natural resource energy but also pollute the effective Environment.So in this project we replace the Fly-Ash to the cement and robo sand to the fine aggregate by variable percentages. Fly ash is the by-product of the combustion of pulverized coal in electric power generation plants. Fly ash particles are minute solid spheres. Fly ash is collected from the exhaust gases by electrostatic precipitators or bag filters Color generally ranges from dark grey to yellowish tan for fly ash used for concrete. Chemical makeup of fly ash is primarily silicate glass containing silica, alumina, iron, calcium. The perfect substitute for river sand is robo sand River sand is one of the basic ingredients in manufacture of concrete.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">River sand has become expensive and scarce. Therefore looking alternate to the river sand. The crusher dust is known as Robo sand can be used as alternative material to the river sand. Robo sand possess similar properties as that of river sand, hence accepted as a building material. all replacements were done to the M30 grade of concrete. The cement has been<br>replaced by fly ash accordingly in the percentage, and fine aggregate has been replaced by robo sand in percentage.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In this present investigation workability and strength of concrete was evaluated by replacement of Fly Ash and Robo Sand in properties of 0%,20%,40%,60%,80%,100% is suited for M30 and M40 grades of concrete cubes and cylinders were casted at the age of 7,14 and 28 days. In this present experimental study on concrete having grades of M30 and M40 are prepared by the replacement of Fly Ash and natural sand by Robo Sand. Concrete specimens were tested for evaluation of compressive strength and split-tensile strength.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 STOCK MARKET DATA PREDICTION MODEL USING SVM AND NAVIES BYES TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW 2021-11-30T13:01:23-05:00 Komaljeet Kaur Dr. Dinesh Kumar <p style="text-align: justify;">Data mining is especially settled on the speculation that the significant data holds the crucial memory for predicting the future bearing. This development is planned to empower theorists to discover covered models from the striking data that have conceivable judicious capacity in their endeavor decisions. The conjecture of securities trades is seen as a troublesome errand of cash related time plan desire. Data examination is one strategy for envisioning if future stocks costs will increase or decreasing. In like manner, it inspected diverse overall events and their issues predicting on money related trades. The monetary trade can be viewed as a particular data mining issue. Content mining approach is moreover used for assessing the effect of consistent news on stock. It uses unmistakable methodology and philosophies to anticipate great and awful occasions in securities trade. In this paper particular masters look at work is investigated. There are various issues are described that are elucidated in the issue plan.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A REVIEW ON EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THERMOACOUSTIC REFRIGERATOR 2021-11-30T13:04:22-05:00 Aakash Bipinbhai Patel Darshan N Gajdhar Avdhoot N Jejurkar <p style="text-align: justify;">Thermoacoustic cooler is new refrigeration innovation which does not require any moving parts and destructive refrigerants in its task. This innovation utilizes acoustic waves to siphon heat over a temperature slope. By far most of Thermoacoustic iceboxes to date have utilized electromagnetic amplifiers to produce the acoustic information. In this proposition, the plan, development, activity of a Thermoacoustic cooler is nitty gritty. As it doesn't contain any moving part other than speaker which increment the life expectancy of item and reduction the support cost. So it doesn't utilize ointment. It just uses the sound wave which is weight wave for cooling. The main weakness of this Thermoacoustic refrigeration is it has low COP contrast with other regular techniques. Be that as it may, most effective framework are endeavored to be made. Heaps of research is going on here. The present work depicts hypothetical examination and test examination of standing wave Thermoacoustic cooler and fundamentally centers around improving the execution of Thermoacoustic fridge by manufacture of stack with two distinctive material low warm conductive material at virus side and high conductive material at hot side.</p> 2021-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparative Study of Different shapes of Diagrid Structure System with Conventional System using Response Spectrum Analysis: A Conceptual Review 2021-12-01T02:18:48-05:00 Jayesh , Akhand Dr.J.N Vyas <p style="text-align: justify;">The diagrid structural system may be outlined as a diagonal member shaped as a framework created by the intersection of various materials like metals, concrete or wood beams that are used in the construction of buildings and roofs. Diagrid structures of the steel members are efficient in providing a solution both in term of strength and stiffness. But these days a widespread application of diagrid is employed within the giant span and high-rise buildings, significantly after they area unit complicated geometries and shapes. Diagrid structure consists of inclined columns on the exterior surface of the building. Due to inclined columns, lateral loads are resisted by axial action of the diagonal compared to bending of vertical columns in framed tube structure. Diagrid structures typically, don't need core because of lateral shear may be carried by the diagonals on the outer boundary of a building</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fabrication of portable 3 Axis CNC router machine 2021-12-01T03:17:33-05:00 Mr. Prashil Patel Mr. Shreyas Pavagadh Dr. Shailee G Acharya <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper describes about the Fabrication of portable 3 Axis CNC router machine. The Part programming of the required design to be engraved was done with the help of image processing. The design to be engraved is created using the software (ArtCam, InkScape) which supports image processing, and then G-codes are generated and sent to the microcontroller through GRBL software using serial communication which then sends the signals to the actuators which performs the required motion on the job according to point coordinates. The feature of an offline G-Code parser interprets on the micro-controller from a USB. After testing this machine can be used for engraving, on Metals such as aluminum up to 0.4mm depth, in 2D. This machine is capable of performing machining<br>operations in work area of 28cmx17cm.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Feasibility of Geo-textile in Transportation Engineering- An Overview 2021-12-01T03:21:46-05:00 Vikash Singh, Samreen Bano Dr. Syed Aqeel Ahmad Aditya Kumar Gautam <p style="text-align: justify;">Nowadays various geo-synthetic materials like geo-grids, geo-textile, geocomposites, geo-nets, geomembranes, geo-synthetic clay liners, geo-foam, and geo-cells are extensively used in various civil engineering applications and projects because of their useful characteristics. Various critical situations arise due to increasing traffic day by day. Due to high traffic volume, the roads are damaging before its life. The black cotton soil posses high swelling property. Due to heavy rains, compression and contraction takes place in the form of undulations. To overcome such a problem we can use geo-textile materials. Geo-textile is one of the first textile products in human history. Geo-textile increases the bearing capacity of soil and the improvement of soil strata beneath the highway<br>pavement so that undulations can be avoided and the life span of road increases. Geo-textile has been used very successfully in transportation engineering for over 30 years. Geotextiles are better materials for infrastructural works such as roads, , and many others. Geo-textiles play an important role in modern pavement design and maintenance applications. Worldwide its usage is high in general &amp; transportation engineering in particular. In this review, paper geo-textiles have been discussed in length with regard to its basic characteristics, function, and applications like reinforcement to improve the performance of road, in-pavement drainage system, in road construction, maintenance and erosion control, in separation and sub-grade stabilization and in support systems. The focus of this paper is on a better understanding of this relatively new tool available to the transportation engineers.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 OPPORTUNITIES FOR SINICON AS ECO- FRIENDLY USE IN ADAPTABLE FINE AGGREGATES 2021-12-01T03:29:06-05:00 Mr.Shahnawaz Ahmed Mir Mr.Saurabh Singh Mr.Hardik Saxena <p style="text-align: justify;">In this project, we are making the concrete with using sinicon in partial replacement of the fine mixture. Sinicon is a light substance. Compared to the larger general set, the specific gravity of Sinicon can be very low. Good aggregate will improve within that time so that we can use that material. We are using the concrete M25 grade. We are partially adding sinicon with a high quality combination of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Study on High Performance Concrete as a Partial Replacement of Cement with Fly Ash and UFGGBS Including Durability Properties 2021-12-01T03:34:36-05:00 Saurabh Agarwal Mahendra Saini Ravindra Budania <p style="text-align: justify;">The requirement of high-performance concrete and high strength concrete increased because as the demand for High Rise Building and Complex Structure inthe construction industry is increased. From last few years, there is much research that suggests concrete strength and durability can improve by replacing cement with Minerals &amp; Chemical Admixture. Alccofine 1203 and Flyash are pozzolonic materials that are used as a replacement of cement to enhance the properties of concrete. The study is focused to utilize Alccofine and Flyash as partial replacement of cement for the High Strength and High-Performance Concrete. After lots of trial batch of constant Flyash amount and varying Alccofine amount a desirable result obtained which increases the strength of concrete by 70%.<br>Hence the study proves that Alccofine can be used as a replacement for the cement to obtain High Strength and HighPerformance Concrete.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 BUILDING CUSTOM IMAGE FOR ZEDBOARD USING PETALINUX: CASE STUDY 2021-12-01T03:38:55-05:00 Yash Naik Rikin Nayak Arpita Shah <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper is focuses on Building a Custom Image of Linux Operating System(OS). The custom Image of Linux OS is Developed using the Petalinux. “Petalinux is the Embedded Linux System Development Kit” This OS will be developed on Xilinx’s Zynq-7000 All Programmable System on chip which contains the dual core ARM processor. With the use of SD card, OS will be Boot on the Zedboard. The advantage of design customized image for Zedboard, which is consists of reconfiguration system (FPGA) and software programming, to solve complex problem at lower cost, compare to the graphics processing unit(GPU) and General purpose computer. This paper gives information about steps of building the custom image of Linux Operating System(OS).</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A CRITICAL STUDY ON RETAIL MARKET AT VARIOUS PERSPECTIVES 2021-12-01T03:44:24-05:00 Dr. Atul Sen Singh <p style="text-align: justify;">A set of activities used to sell products/ services to ultimate consumer for their uses and utilities is retailing, retailing takes the responsibility for matching consumer demand according to their needs &amp; upcoming trends in market. The term “Retail” is derived from the French word retailer which simply mean ‘to cot a piece off’, Retailer is a person, an agent, a company or agency who converts input in to finished product / final goods with the help of manufacture for ultimate satisfaction of consumer, there are various sort of avidities which are performed by the retailer on customer which are performed by the retailer on customer hands such as anticipation of consumer needs &amp; desires, development of marketing strategies, channel of communication prediction of market, competitors affect financing. In this paper will study about retail marketing, Retail marketing comprises of sale &amp; purchase of goods &amp; services to ultimate consumer considering his task &amp; preferences according to the trends in marketing</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 REVIEW ON UTILIZATION OF WASTE MATERIAL IN VARIOUS LAYER IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT 2021-12-01T03:47:29-05:00 Niraj Bheda Prof. Mayank Kanani Prof. Parth Lakahni <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper is based on the review of utilization of waste material in various layer in flexible pavement. The disposal of waste create a serious challenging problem as most of the polyethylene wastes are non-biodegradable and unfit for incineration as they emit harmful gases. Various study show that, it can be used in technical development in different fields like construction of flexible pavement and back filling etc.. The objective of present study is to review the changing in engineering property of different material by using various wastes. Various research work shows that waste material such as plastic bottle, coir waste, fly ash, lime, silica etc. Help in improving various engineering property of different materials. To evaluate the change in engineering laboratory test such as standard proctor test, direct shear test, California bearing test (CBR) and field test such as filed CBR test, field cyclic test, plate load test viz. in carried out</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Adaptive Speech Noise Cancellation Using Least Mean Square Algorithm 2021-12-01T03:52:45-05:00 Dr.Y. Amar Babu M. Chandu M. Raja P. Sowjanya S. Bhargav <p style="text-align: justify;">In any communication noise is always has been playing an undesirable performance. Irrespective of the type of the signals (i.e., Speech, Audio/Video, Image) that we acquire at the receiver side is affected by noise. Noise is an unwanted portion of the signals. During transmission signals gets effected by noise. So, we have to cancel out the noise content which modifies the transmitted version during processing, storage and conversions. In voice communication recorded/live speech data signal transmitted will be very useless, unless a perfect noise cancellation system is adopted. There are many kinds of such mechanisms. In this paper we approached and adopted an adaptive noise cancellation, and by implementing the three algorithms (LMS, JAYA, PSO) noise eliminated to some extent and the gain percentage from the base paper is Adaptive filtering applications serves their best in Interference and noise cancellations.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 QUAD DIFFERENCE LABELLING ON SOME GRAPHS 2021-12-01T04:01:10-05:00 V.Govindan S.Dhivya <p style="text-align: justify;">A new labelling and a new graph called quad difference labelling and quad difference graph is defined. Let G be a graph. G is said to be quad difference labelling if there exist such that the edge set of G has assigned a weight defined by the absolute quad difference of its end vertices, the resulting weights are distinct. We investigate quad difference labelling for some graphs. The approach will be to summarize them in different flavour and possible different labelling.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Finite Element Analysis of Multi-storey Steel Frame Structure Subjected to Seismic Ground Motions: A Review 2021-12-01T04:05:58-05:00 Bisakha Chalisey Bikram Raj Gyawali Megha Gupta <p style="text-align: justify;">Finite element analysis (FEA) is a very popular method of analysis whose popularity is increasing day by day in the design of steel structures in order to avoid unsafe or highly conservative designs. For a Structural Engineer, to perform a finite element analysis, solid know-how in computer-aided design (CAD) and engineering (CAE) codes is necessary. The paper reviews the detailed finite element analysis of steel frame structure subjected to consecutive ground excitations conducted using E-Simulator. E-Simulator is a parallel finite element analysis software package developed to accurately simulate structural behaviour up to collapse by using a fine mesh of solid elements. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to provide an extensive review of useful guidelines concerning modelling, simulation and result validation for the accurate performance of finite element analyses.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 LEANING REVERSE TRIKE WITH DOUBLE WISHBONE SUSPENSION SYSTEM 2021-12-01T04:11:10-05:00 Jayvish Jani Prof. Devang Patel Prof. Ajay Solanki <p style="text-align: justify;">A leaning vehicle has a frame that pivots relative to a pivotable frame member about a pivot axis. A preferably Three wheeled vehicle having tilting characteristics that allows the vehicle to have substantial leaning properties similar to those offered by an inline two wheel vehicles, but that does not require complex linkages or control system to operate effectively. Purpose of designing this mechanism in order to increase the cornering safety and stability of the vehicle at high speeds also for person with disabilities. For demonstration, this mechanism is installed in Honda Activa model 2004 because it is gear less vehicle, so person with physical disabilities able to drive it. Independent Double Wishbone Suspension system in front two wheels is used to get good steering and lean property. Leaning mechanism is carried out for a normal reverse trike to give it the flexibility of a two wheeled motor<br>cycle. Leaning a vehicle can provide many performance and design advantages including greater stability while turning as well as reduced probability of roll over while taking a turn.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EFFECT OF NANO SILICA ON CONCRETE MIX DESIGN IN RIGID PAVEMENT 2021-12-01T04:15:55-05:00 Preet B. Patel Dr. H. R. Varia Chirag B. Patel <p style="text-align: justify;">India is the second greatest highway framework on the earth. Owing of rising oil costs and an all the more firmly money related condition, cement is transforming into an all the more appealing decision compared to other road. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways in India saw that advance society can work effectively on concrete roads. The principle concentration now daily is toward the including of Nano silica sand in concrete for enhancing quality of concrete mix design to cope up ever increasing higher load carrying capacity vehicles on pavement. In my examination, at first M40 grade of concrete is outlined. In the mix, Nano silica sand has been taken into consideration by replacing Nano silica sand in measurements of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% &amp; 5% by the weight of cement to<br>study the logical properties according to code by testing for workability, compressive and flexure strength. The rigid pavement thickness design utilizing IRC 58:2011 with various extent of Nano silica sand to find out cost effective rigid pavement design. The result shows that solid blend with Nano silica sand ends up being productive and can be suggested for pavement decision makers and contractors.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 CHARECTERSTICS OF EXPENSIVE SOIL BY USING WASTE KOTA STONE SLURRY 2021-12-01T04:20:16-05:00 Viny mehta Rishi Bhalavada Prof. Ajay bindlish <p style="text-align: justify;">Expansive soils are widely conveyed around the world, and are a wellspring of extraordinary harm to foundation and structures. The disturb far reaching soils has been set down everywhere throughout the world. The soil devours water and expand in storm additionally in summer it diminish because of the gasification of water. The focal point of study is attainability of mechanical waste like kota stone slurry as soil adjustment material. To compute the impact of kota stone slurry on list properties of dark cotton soil, various research center investigations have been directed on dark cotton soil tests blended with various extent like 0%, 4%,8%,12%,18%,20% of kota stone slurry by weight of dry soil. The express development of enterprises of kota stone produces risky waste materials at an immense sum which makes a major issue to the people encompassing them just as goes about as a poison, so it influences the<br>natural arrangement of the earth. There is exceptional improvement in the list properties of the black cotton soil on expansion of kota stone slurry into it. The test outcomes uncover that the compaction parameters, fluid breaking point, pliancy file, most extreme dry thickness, California bearing proportion expanded with an expansion in kota stone slurry content. The most ideal blend of 16% Kota Stone Slurry by dry load of costly soil.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 HYBRID PURITY ANALYSIS OF NSL COMMERCIAL TOMATO HYBRIDS USING SSR MARKERS 2021-12-01T04:25:19-05:00 J.AKHILA <p style="text-align: justify;">Exploitation of the complete potential of any hybrid needs the possessing of genetically High-purity seeds. SSR microsatellite markers( Brondani et al. 2006; Acuna et al. 2012; He et al. 2012; Faria et al. 2010 ) were used to test seed genetic purity (of two commercial hybrid tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) varieties ‘NTH 1813’ and ‘SONA’. 35 SSR markers were used to detect the polymorphic pattern between their parental lines. F1 hybrids (Marschall S. 2006) mainly showed a complementary pattern of both parents, which could be very useful to distinguish the F1 from its parental lines (Peter Abramoff, Thomson 1994). The number of SSR primers was showed<br>monomorphic DNA bands with parental lines. Three primers showed polymorphic bands with two commercial tomato varieties. Toms2 and toms236 were showed polymorphic DNA bands with NTH1813 and MT8 showed polymorphic DNA bands with SONA.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 STUDY OF COUPLING COEFFICIENT & DIRECTIVITY OF THE MICROSTRIPLINE COUPLER 2021-12-01T04:28:40-05:00 MANOJ KUMAR <p style="text-align: justify;">The coupling coefficient, directivity and the attenuation constant etc. are to be studied in this present paper. The microstrip directional coupler and its characteristic parameters have also been analytically studied. An ideal microstrip directional coupler makes use of the basic feature that power flowing in one direction in the main transmission line induces a power flow in only one direction in the secondary line.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES MADE BY GFRP REBARS AND GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE AGAINST CONVENTIONAL REINFORCED CONCRETE SYSTEM 2021-12-01T09:14:08-05:00 Panchal Akash Chetan Machhi <p style="text-align: justify;">The main purpose of this paper is to comparative study of strength of multi-storey, multibay frame buildings for lateral load for all materials combinations comes out of GFRP rebars, steel rebars, Geopolymer concrete, and conventional cement based concrete (such as GFRP-CONCRETE FRAME, GFRP-GEOPOLYMER FRAME, STEEL-CONCRETE FRAME, and STEEL-GEOPOLYMER FRAME of G+8, G+10, and G+12 STORIES) using nonlinear pushover analysis. Pushover analysis will carried out using ETABS 2016 software and using M3 and V2 hinges for beams and P-M-M hinges for columns. This paper shows the comparisons of displacement vs base shear at performance point and also shows comparison of maximum storey displacement vs base shear curve.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PLANNING AND DESIGN OF MULTISTOREY BUS PARKING: A REVIEW 2021-12-01T09:17:39-05:00 Chandan Sahani Sunil Saharan Rahman Wali Bello Safiyanu <p style="text-align: justify;">The growing population India has created many problem, one of them is parking problem of vehicles. Thepopulation is increasing day by day which leading to increase number of vehicle. This increasing number of vehicle is creating problem of transportation system. In order to reduce parking problem construction of multistorey parking is needed. This paper presents the planning and design of multistorey parking of buses which reduce the parking problem of buses. In this paper we considered various design aspect such as planning of grid, designing, dimension, bay width, arrangement of deck and ramp, alignment paths to exits barrier, security, visibility, space allowance and lift provision. For analysing this structure all possible loading was considered to check whether the building is safe against all the possible loading. For analysing this multistorey building E-tab (2016) software is used and planning of building was done by Auto CAD (2015).</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 CREEP AND SHRINKAGE BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH VOLUME FLY ASH MORTAR 2021-12-01T09:22:37-05:00 T.Abbirami Iswarya Dr. S. Suchithra <p style="text-align: justify;">The investigation was carried out in fly ash as cement based material to shrinkage reducing agent. The mortar mixes including ordinary Portland cement and high volume fly ash was prepared. The experimental investigation dealing with concrete incorporating high volume fly ash of Class F ash replaced with various percentages.The use of HighVolume Fly Ash (HVFA) reduces the shrinkage and also improves the workability and strength. The main objective of using High Volume Fly Ash to reduce the heat generation and to obtain better durability properties and also decrease the porosity and pore size.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 To Study the Effect of Addition of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate on fresh and hardened properties of Concrete 2021-12-01T09:34:55-05:00 Kishan R. Patel Dr. Siddharth G. Shah Prof Kedar Desai <p style="text-align: justify;">An attempt is made in this study to evaluate the behavior of partially replaced coarse aggregate with light weight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) on various properties of the concrete. The performance of the concrete using LECA is not known much. The main goal of this study is to examine the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of the concrete using LECA with replacing normal aggregate by 0- 100% in the increment of 25%. The result indicated that maximum reduction of weight is about 28% and strength reduced by 17% for 100% Replacement. The optimum dosage of replacement without affecting strength is 25%. This study shows that the performance of the developed LECA mixed concrete helps to reduce the weight of structure if a suitable mix design are provided.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 HIGH PERFORMANCE SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE: A REVIEW 2021-12-01T09:43:35-05:00 Bello Safiyanu Sunil Saharan Chandan Sahani Rahman Wali <p style="text-align: justify;">High performance self-compacting is a sub division of special concrete that required special dispatch, implementation and conformity which cannot be possible unless with addition of some material such as chemical and mineral admixture as well as excellent mix design which may be due to the availability of materials in the nation, it also required a better curing in order to take care of any endogenous behaviour. In this study, an extensive literature review has been conducted on the material characterization of self-compacting concrete and its potential for large scale field applicability, which may leads to achieve the rheological properties of concrete. Similarly, the paper highlights the current challenges regarding the implementation of self-compacting concrete in full scale structures. Also strives to assist engineers to better understand the unique characteristics and capabilities of SCC, such as high strength, high workability, durability, etc.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Implementing Last Planner System for Improving Project Performance 2021-12-01T09:48:02-05:00 Naveed A Hafiz Shirgar Neetu B. Yadav <p style="text-align: justify;">Lean construction is very popular in manufacturing industries to improve productivity and smooth workflow. Implementation of Lean Construction (LC) tool Last Planner System (LPS) attempts to increase productivity at construction site. To achieve research objective a commercial building project site was analyzed implementing Last Planner System (LPS). With an attempt to increase project reliability and performance collected data analyzed using Lookahead plan and Weekly work plan. Identification of reason for variance and improvement in average Percent Plan complete (PPC) reveals that improving planning and well management practices can reduce variance and ensure positive impact on project performance.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF INTERNAL CURING AGENT IN CEMENT MORTAR 2021-12-01T09:51:14-05:00 T.vishnuppriya Dr. S. Suchithra <p style="text-align: justify;">Investigation study is made on spinach also termed as spinach oleracea stem is a leafy green vegetable plant and the stem is suns dried and taken as powder and used as a natural self curing agent in cement mortar. Its pH value is 7.48. The design grade of concrete was fixed at M40. The main notion behind the usage of spinach as self curing agent is to find out the presence of hydroxyl group in the chemical structure of spinach family. The chemical structure shows that it contains OH functional group. As such, the Spinacia oleracea stem powder selected as internal curing agent possesses hydroxyl group, which is also find out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD). From the above test results molecular structure for the spinach oleracea stem was derived. Spinach is also an effective curing agent and improves the cement hydration, compressive strength, diminishes shrinkage and accelerates the durability of concrete whereas the conventional method needs improvement.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IDENTIFICATION OF FACTOR INFLUENCING ON PROJECT MANAGEMENT PHASES IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTR 2021-12-01T09:54:34-05:00 Muaaviyah M. Kadodia Bhavin K. Kashiyani <p style="text-align: justify;">With increasing demand for commercial building Indian government decided to reduce the waiting time of future commercial building owners, which requires these projects to be completed on time. A project can be said successful only when it is completed within the scheduled time and cost. In India, construction industry stands next to agriculture in the economic activity. Any problem in the economy of the construction industry would directly affect the country’s economy. This study aims to identify the factors affecting project management phases. In order to eliminate this decline in countries economy, the factors influencing the construction industries decline is been studies. Five major groups of independent variables, namely project-related factors, project procedures, project management actions, human related factors, and external environment are identified as crucial to project phases. This study is also helpful to the different stakeholders like contractors, site engineers, owners etc.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Design and CFD Analysis of Globe Valve 2021-12-01T09:58:18-05:00 Krunal B. Patel Prof. Bhavin A. Gajjar <p style="text-align: justify;">Stop valves are commonly used as fluid flow equipment in many of the engineering applications and Globe Valve Are Used as Regulating or Isolation Equipment in many pipe lines thus it is more important to know the flow characteristics of the valve. With the help of flow simulation and numeric technique, it becomes possible to observe the flows of valves, here we developed a method to obtain the plug design profile required to have desired flow. In this study CFD simulations will conducted to observe the flow patterns and to measure valve flow co-efficient when globe valve with different flow rate and constant pressure drop across the valve were used in a system. In industries it is essential to have accurate and perfect control on the flow of medium at various operations as per requirement for efficient output. This can be achieved by the accurate valve sizing and accurate plug design as per required flow characteristics.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 STUDY OF THE RESPONSE OF HIGH-RISE BUILDING USING OUTRIGGERS WITH VISCO-ELASTIC DAMPER 2021-12-01T10:02:04-05:00 Ketan R. Abhani Mohit S. Vachhani Dr. Mazhar Dhankot <p style="text-align: justify;">In developing country like India having such a high population, and unavailability of land, the high-rise building is a possible solution. This gives rise to some challenges in its structural stability due to critical loading conditions that arise due to earthquake and predominantly due to wind. Control of the lateral deformation and inter storey drifts is the major challenge to overcome in the execution of high-rise buildings subjected to these lateral loads. The outrigger belt truss system is commonly used structural system for controlling the excessive drift due to lateral load effectively. For high-rise buildings, particularly in seismically active zone, this system can be selected to meet structural safety requirements. This study is carried out on an eighty storeyed building having a floor plan of 30m x 30m along with varying location of outrigger belt truss system. Non-linear Time-history analysis is carried out for obtaining results. Parameters like maximum storey displacement, Inter Storey Drift and base shear is considered.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 GIS and ITS Oriented Modelling Analytic to Enhance Level of Service of Traffic at Mid-Block on Junctions 2021-12-01T10:09:03-05:00 Mehrdad Vakilzadehanaraki K. M. Lakshmana Rao <p style="text-align: justify;">Intelligent transportation system is used as supportive tool to track the charactristictics of traffic. Computer vision based deep learning approach is attempted and collected data on classified volume counts, speeds and geometric deficiencies which are causative for poor level of service. artificial intelligence based trained data is used for classifying traffic and deep learning tools of neural network is used for recognizing speed of vehicle. GIS is used to map the violations of physical in a junction and at mid-block. Dynamic reactions of vehicle driver are sensitized to adjust and accommodate traffic mobility. Certain analytical inputs are framed in tri angle model. This model has identified the centroid positions of idealistic and observed. successively integration method is used the minimize the obstructions for reducing level of service. Results has shown that role of lane discipline, geometric needs to enhance, preferential signal of green for high occupancy vehicles, vehicle activated signal system, pedestrian sensitive signal on mobility. Deliverables have been made as outcome from models, analytics and conceptual needs on way out for enhancing level of service of junction and mid-block with reference to traffic.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 “PARAMETRIC STUDY ON PERFORMANCE OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE BY USING MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES” 2021-12-01T10:13:33-05:00 Poojan A. Mistry Prof. Sandip P. Chandresha <p style="text-align: justify;">Concrete is produced in variety of compositions, finishes, and performance characteristics to meet a wide range of needs. Concrete is used in structure to increase the strength, durability, and tensile strength. The concrete which is used had strength and durability then also High Strength Concrete (HSC) has introduced to increase the performance. Therefore for increasing more performance of High Strength Concrete (HSC) the researchers find additive material call Carbon Nano tubes (CNT’s). CNT had strength and flexibility which makes them of potential use in controlling other Nano scale structures, which suggests they will have an important role in Nano technology engineering. Multi wall carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) is one type of CNT which is part of Nano technology which is going to be used in nowadays structure. It has a highest tensile strength of 63GPa which had been tested as per past study. Increasing the strength for longer duration of time and prolonging life along with giving boost to compressive strength and contributing to the tensile strength by improving the flexural strength is reported from earlier research work, when CNT’s are mixed with concrete. For effectively using MWCNT in concrete polycarboxylate ether super plasticizer is used as a surfactant in water with MWCNT to disperse them. Conducting an experiment on performance of high-strength concrete (M 65) by adding low concentration of MWCNT for finding compressive strength and durability. After using this additive material in concrete compared the relative performance of compressive strength and durability with the concrete material in which additive material (MWCNT) is not used.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON CONCRETE WITH PARTIALLY OR FULLY REPLACEMENT OF TREATED SEA SAND AS FINE AGGREGATE 2021-12-01T10:18:06-05:00 G.PRANAY KUMAR A. BALAJI N.SIVA U.BHARATH KUMAR <p style="text-align: justify;">The concrete is the most popular building material in the world. It is composed of cement, fine aggregate[sand], and coarse aggregate mixed with water. Sand is the one of the material in concrete, it mostly used in all construction purposes. In current situation river sand has been most popular choice for the fine aggregate component of concrete, but overuse of the material has lead to depleting of securable river sand deposits and inconvenient transportation rises the cost of river sand resources. Therefore, it is desirable to obtain cheap, ecofriendly substitutes for river sand that is partial preferably sea sand. This project deals with the usage of sea sand in the construction field with the removal of salt content and organic matter from the sand. An experimental setup for boiling and number of washes with ample water are made suitable for reducing the salt content. And for removal of micro organic matter, wash the sea sand with water along chemical solution. To equalize its properties similar to the river sand. This study gives a comparison on the M25 grade conventional concrete properties and the partially replacement of sea sand as fine aggregate in concrete was used in gradually increasing proportion to make concrete blocks and test the compression and tensile tests at 7, 14, 28 days of curing. The test results for both the sets of concrete were tabulated and plot the graphs. Compare the test results evaluate the which percentage gives the best result.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 “Evaluation of Parking Demand at Valsad Railway Station” 2021-12-01T10:24:06-05:00 Ashish G. Bhoya Dr. P. M. Shah Dr. H. R. Varia <p style="text-align: justify;">India is fastest developing major economy in the world. Gujarat is India’s one of the leading developing state with increasing industrial and economic development. For holistic development of any region it is necessary to have a balanced transportation system. Along with this, Gujarat has good network of railway connectivity. Due to this, many passengers uses Railway for travelling from one place to another. The one of the busiest railway line connecting economic capital Mumbai and political capital Delhi is passing through Gujarat. Valsad is one of the important and busy railway stations on Mumbai- Delhi and Ahmadabad – Mumbai railway line. Many people of Valsad are working in nearby cities like Mumbai, Vapi and Surat etc. Hence, people widely use Railway as a mode of transportation. Salary class and Students prefer railway due to vast availability, comfort and cheaper fares. Most of these people use two wheelers or other vehicles to reach the Railway station from their homes and they use to park their vehicles in the area near by the railway station. In peak hour, like early morning and evening there is high parking demand occurs at Railway Station and people use to park their vehicles outside the parking area. Hence, to avoid this type of scenario proper parking facilities are required. At Valsad Railway Station, as per field observation parking facilities are insufficient. Commuters use to park their vehicles on the periphery of the roads and on walkway which results in traffic jam condition in and around railway station area. So, parking demand evaluation is necessary at Valsad Railway Station. To evaluate parking demand license plate method, parking space inventory and parking usage survey by petrol were conducted. For the valsad railway station the total three numbers of parking lots. Parking lot-A and lot-B for two wheelers and lot-C for four wheelers are being analyzed and the parking demand analysis for three lots is performed. As per the finding the parking demand on normal day for Lot-A (two-wheeler parking) Parking Index is more than one the capacity, same way for Lot-B (two-wheeler parking). Parking accumulation analysis for Lot-A &amp; Lot –B is over utilized from morning 9:00 am to evening 8:30 pm. To study the demand different parking surveys will be used to obtain clear scenario of the present parking situation and future suggestion to ease the parking demand.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 REVIEW OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE USING CORROSION INHIBITORS 2021-12-01T10:28:44-05:00 Surya Pratap Singh Nishant Kumar <p style="text-align: justify;">Self-compacting concrete is a flowing concrete mix that is able to consolidate under its own weight and due to this fluid nature of SCC it is considered to be suitable for placing in congested reinforcement. By using SCC, it is possible to minimize hearing-related damages on the worksite that usually occurs due to vibration of concrete. Corrosion which is one of the biggest problems that causes deterioration of concrete structures and has bigger impact in coastal areas. The corrosion causes the formation of rust which is four times the volume of original steel and does not have any of its good mechanical qualities, it also causes the loss of bond between concrete and steel which results in delamination, cracking and spalling. Corrosion inhibitor can be used to reduce the rate of corrosion when used in proper proportion by applying on the surface of steel or by adding during the preparation of concrete mix. Corrosion inhibitors are classified such as Organic and Inorganic and can also be classified on the basis of electrode reaction they possess such as anodic, cathodic or mixed inhibitors. The objective of this work is to study the behaviour of Organic and Inorganic corrosion inhibitors for steel in self-compacting concrete. The effectiveness of the inhibitors will be compared and analysed.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ANALYSIS OF CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS 2021-12-01T10:33:27-05:00 Meet R. Patel Keyur P. Shah Bhavin K. Kashiyani <p style="text-align: justify;">Critical success factors are useful information for project decision makers in practice. A construction project failure principally defined as dissatisfaction in either one or the grouping of cost, time, quality, and management. This study is an effort to analyse the critical success factors (CSFs) in the infrastructure projects. Initially wide-ranging literature study is carried out and based on that critical success factors is identified. For discovery of CSFs in Indian construction site interview also carried out to search the most effective factors which will be the guide factors to forecast the chance of a project success. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect expert assessment from across the different stake holders involved in the construction work. The current research makes a methodology departure from the literature by attempting to build the causation of project success &amp; the contribution of each critical success factor to the project success will be established. And at the end of the study, the successful factors can help to the project manager in their upcoming project so project can be completed within given resources.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 OCR Based Hands-Free Text Entry Using LabVIEW 2021-12-01T10:38:39-05:00 R. Harikishan B. Ravi Teja Reddy K. Lakshmi D.B.V. Lakshmi Narayana B. Sandeep Kumar <p style="text-align: justify;">Advancements in Technology aim in reduction of Human efforts to a greater extent. The objective of the project is to design a Hands-Free Text Entry System using LabVIEW. In order to assist physically handicapped persons (Bilateral Amputees in specific), a simple system is designed. Unlike previous systems which used a virtual keyboard and a webcam to detect the movements of user, we are using webcam to identify and compose the characters printed on a Sheet of paper into a String. A LASER pointer is mounted on top of camera to guide the user towards the required character. This paper contains two parts, Optical Character Recognition and composing the string obtained into a file. The OCR is developed using NI Vision Assistant for LabVIEW software-developing tool.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 SMART TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON TRAFFIC DENSITY 2021-12-01T11:06:01-05:00 Mr. CH. Mallikharjuna Rao N. Rama Reddy D. Harsha Vardhan R. Mithin Sai D. Dinesh <p style="text-align: justify;">Now a days traffic congestion has become a big problem in main cities and towns. The congestion is due to large signal light delays. Irrespective of traffic density the signal light delay is fixed to predefined time and large amount of power is wasted for the lights presented along the roads of these junctions. So this project is designed to reduce or control the traffic jams especially at multi-road junctions. The project is based on IR sensors.IR LEDs and photodiodes are placed either sides of the roads. This entire IR Sensors are controlled by Arduino board. With the help of these traffic density is tracked based on traffic density, signal light time is updated every time and traffic is managed well. Street lights present along the roads will be ON only when there is any vehical present there. The system entirely depends on Arduino board.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Study on Peak Flood Estimation using Flood Frequency Analysis for Panam Dam Reservoir 2021-12-01T11:10:30-05:00 Assistant Professor Sunita Panda Ehsanullah Karim <p style="text-align: justify;">Floods are the natural calamities which brings devastation to life and property. This paper describes the methods of estimating the peak floods up to 100 years for Panam dam site located at Kel Dazar, Godhra. The flood frequency analysis methods include Gumbel’s Method, Log Pearson Type III Distribution and Log Normal Distribution. In addition to the following methods, a new and improved named Design Index Flood Method. For the study purpose, annual peak floods for 19 years i.e. from 2000 to 2018 has been taken into consideration. From the results, it has been observed that the peak floods estimated using Gumbel’s method has a proximity towards the observed data as compared to other methods. The RMSE values and the Absolute difference also indicates a lower value for Gumbel’s method. From this study, it is concluded that Gumbel’s method is the suitable method for predicting the peak floods at the Panam Dam site.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EFFECT OF LEFT TURNING VEHICLE ON QUEUE LENGTH & DELAY AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION: A CASE STUDY OF VRUNDAVAN CROSS ROAD VADODARA 2021-12-01T11:14:43-05:00 Jayshiv M. Thakkar Ankita Sharma Dr. Vilin Parekh Jayesh Juremalani <p style="text-align: justify;">The behaviour of traffic in the heterogeneous environment is complex and difficult to model. Cpmplexity increases many folds at intersection. In India due to heterogeneous traffic condition, traffic problems arise to the road users because different types of vehicle with different characteristics use the same roads. The more traffic signal time will result in bottleneck condition for the traffic hence the queue length and delay time of vehicle is more. Normally left turn vehicle has direct lane but sometime it is creating problems to vehicle from preceding road hence left turning vehicle creates conflict due left hand turning vehicle with merging of vehicle coming from preceding approach (straight movement). So many research works had been done on the left turning traffic like effect of left turn channelization on vehicle waiting time but the research work on vehicle queue length and delay time is less understood specially in mix traffic condition. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of left turning vehicles on queue length and delay at signalized intersection under mix traffic condition. The study area selected is Vrundavan intersection and the traffic survey was carried out during the morning time of 8:00 am to 12:00 noon and also for evening time 3:00 pm to 7:00 pm for working day as well as for non-working day. Data analysis is done with the help of VISSIM software. To solve the traffic problem of queue length and vehicle delay time Micro-Simulation Model is the best solution it can study models too complicated for analytical treatment. This paper focus on study of actual traffic condition of signalized intersection at Vrundavan intersection Vadodara and redesign a signal and simulated them using VISSIM Software.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Incremental Dynamic Analysis for seismic Assessment of RC Building using SeismoStruct Software 2021-12-01T11:19:11-05:00 Dilip J. Chaudhari Khushboo Damkondwar <p style="text-align: justify;">IDA is a parametric analysis which predicts absolute structural responses and performances. Analysis is perform by properly defining structural model which is subjected to a suite of ground motion records and the intensity of these ground motions are scaled increasingly using scale factors. The intensity continues to increase when the whole structural responses range from elastic to the nonlinear followed by structural collapse. In the end, a number of curves depicting the specified responses versus the ground motion intensity levels are produced. IDA performs a large number of non-linear time history analysis. Although IDA is time consuming analysis, it can provide the whole range of structural responses from elastic to collapse. Present study deal with existing RC Moment resisting frame located in Zone III. 12 storey structure, symmetric in plan is used to study Incremental Dynamic analysis using seismostrut-2018. SeismoStruct 2018, a finite element program is used for the analysis. IDA curves are developed with respect to spectral acceleration (Sa (T1, 5%). Twenty real ground motion pairs were selected and scaled in SeismoMatch 2018, then applied to the buildings to perform the Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA). For te development of fragility curves, guidelines given by HAZUS MH MR-4 technical manual have been used. Spectral acceleration is considered for plotting the fragility curve.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AN ALTERNATE FINE AGGREGATE AND ZEOLITE BLEND TO ASSESS COMPRESSION QUALITY OF CONCRETE 2021-12-01T11:22:42-05:00 Syed Afzal Basha Dr. B. Jayarami Reddy Dr. C. Sashidhar <p style="text-align: justify;">The current exploratory examination centers around the impact of Quarry residues and normal zeolite on the compression quality of concrete. Sand is mostly supplanted with Quarry residue and cement by natural zeolite in M30 grade of concrete. The present experimentation uncovers that zeolite can supplant cement, and quarry residue can substitute fine sand in concrete to some degree. At half supplanting of fine sand with Quarry dust, increment in compressive strength was taken note. At the same time, 30% supplanting of cement with zeolite, showed better compression quality. The test outcomes were observed to be palatable with the individual and joined substitutions of Quarry residue and zeolite regarding compression nature of concrete.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A PARAMETRIC STUDY ON PRE-ENGINEERED BUILDING 2021-12-01T11:23:38-05:00 Mittal Parmar Varsha Yadav Samruddha Raje <p style="text-align: justify;">Pre Engineered Steel Buildings fulfil all the requirements of industrial structures along with reduced time, speed in construction and cost as compared to Conventional Steel Building. This methodology is modern not only due to its quality in designing and prefabrication, but also due to its light weight and economy. The present work involves study of structural analysis and design of Multi-storey Pre Engineering Building (PEB) by using IS 800-2000 .A modelling, analysis and design of the PEB building is carried out in staad pro (2007) by changing its bay spacing and joist spacing to find most economical structure. Also find out most economical beam spacing in mezzanine floor. Also analyse G+1 &amp; G+2 building to find most economical bay spacing. And to check in which case it achieve most economy in steel quantity. Load cases considered in modelling are Dead load, Live load, Seismic load and Wind load as per Indian Standard code. Also load combinations are considered. Wind load calculation is to be done manually. Analysis is observed for the most economical steel quantity by changing bay spacing and also for changing joist spacing (secondary beam) in mezzanine floor.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AN INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM IN DATA MINING: A REVIEW 2021-12-01T11:27:37-05:00 Ramanjeet Kaur Er. Chamkour Singh <p style="text-align: justify;">Before long a days there is goliath extent of Data being collected and set away in database wherever over the globe. The security assaults can make certifiable agitating impact information and structures. In this manner, Intrusion Detection System (IDS) changes into a fundamental piece of each PC or system structure. Interference Detection (ID) is a system that offers security to the two PCs and structures. Highlight choice and highlight diminishment is major area of research in obstruction bearing framework. In this paper the particular makers papers are researched and various issues are defied that are given in issue plan. All of these issues re settled in future with the help of different systems.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EFFECT OF CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES ON FRESH AND HARDENED PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE: A REVIEW 2021-12-01T11:30:48-05:00 Falak Iftikhar Afreen <p style="text-align: justify;">Concrete is the most widely used man-made construction material in the world. It is a composite material. The strength, durability, workability and other characteristics of the concrete depending on the properties of its ingredients. The use of admixture has become inevitable in terms of improving the characteristics of concrete in both fresh and hardened states to achieve the desired results. In recent years, the demand for admixture mixes has been frequently experienced in the ready-mix concrete industry owing to longer delivery distances or to delays in placing because of problems at the site. A good number of researches are been carried out to study the effect of different type of admixtures on the properties of concrete. This paper helps to achieve an understanding of how a normal concrete mix may behave under different admixture conditions. It helps to investigate the effects of different admixtures one water reducer and other retarders on fresh and hardened properties of concrete. Journal aims at suggesting methods to improve the quality of concrete and thus reducing the cost of overall construction.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 DUMPSTER MONITORING SYSTEM USING ARDUINO 2021-12-01T11:26:41-05:00 Asst. Prof. M.Ramya Harika T.Mounika N.Dinesh Sai Teja T.Sai Satish Kumar M.Sai Manoj <p style="text-align: justify;">Today, one of the most challenging issue is that cities and towns are facing a problem of poor cleanliness of garbage can causing harmful diseases in cities and towns. This happens due to mismanagement of garbage collection. This mismanagement leads to creation of unhealthy environment in our surrounding areas. Due to this several diseases will arise and also degrades the beauty of our environment. That’s our main intention to develop this project. In this system the level of garbage can be known by using ultra sonic sensor and this information is passed to the authorized agency for garbage collection. For passing the information we can use GSM module. In order to send the location we can use GPRS which tells us about the area location with the help of latitude and longitude coordinates. These coordinates are displayed on LCD screen in the control room and the organizer inform the driver to collect the garbage in a particular area. This system can really help the environment to keep safe, smart and clean.</p> 2019-05-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 VOIDED REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS: A STEP TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2021-12-01T11:33:53-05:00 Faizan Rahman Nishant Kumar <p style="text-align: justify;">The use of concrete as construction material has grown rapidly in the recent years. Apart from having many advantages over other construction materials, the major disadvantage of concrete lies in its production. Cement being the major constituent of concrete produces large amount of harmful and toxic gases during its manufacturing. A novel way to reduce the consumption of cement in concrete is by using the latest technology in slab construction, i.e. Voided slabs or Bubble Deck Slabs. The principle behind the use of voided slab is to eliminate the concrete which lies in the middle core of slab and place HDPE spheres in the slab. The stresses are zero along the neutral axis meaning the amount of stress in the concrete at the middle is negligible. The main advantage of adopting voided slabs is that it reduces the total dead weight of the structure drastically. As researches state that the weight of the slab reduces to about 35-40% as compared with the normal slab. Also the performance of the voided slabs can be further enhanced by using fibres along with HDPE spheres. This innovative slab system with considerable reduction in self-weight and savings in materials combines all advantages of the other floor systems, solving all problems caused by their disadvantages in the same time. This review discusses about the advancements of using voided slab system in construction practices.&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparative Study on Behaviour of Intze type Water Tank with Different Lateral Load Resisting Structural Systems 2021-12-01T11:37:09-05:00 Jay Shah Dr. Major Chaitanya S. Sanghvi Abbas Jamani <p style="text-align: justify;">It is observed that the Intze type water tanks were collapsed or damaged during earthquake and this might have occurred due to various reasons like lack of understanding the behavior of the supporting structure (staging) of the Intze type water tank due to seismic loading or selection of improper geometric shape of the staging structure. There are different types of staging patterns that can be used for the Intze type water tank according to the requirement. Framed staging pattern is widely used for the Intze type water tank. It has variety of configurations that can be used. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the behavior of the reinforced concrete Intze type water tank with different staging patterns under the lateral loading. Various types of bracing configurations are used as the supporting frame staging of the Intze type water tank. In this paper, the study is carried out on the reinforced cement concrete Intze type water tank supported on frame type staging. The capacity of the Intze type water tank is taken as 18 Lac litres with staging height of 23 m. Grade of concrete and steel used are M-25 and Fe 415. Medium soil and seismic zone as III are considered in the analysis. Each model is analyzed for tank empty condition, tank partially filled condition and tank full condition.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IOT Based Biometric Attendance Management System 2021-12-01T11:41:19-05:00 B.Y.V.N. R. Swamy K. Yaswanth Sai S. Balasai D. Sainath M. Phaneendra Kumar <p style="text-align: justify;">Biometric attendance system increases the efficiency of the process of taking student attendance. In our project, we are using Internet of Things (IOT) based system that records the attendance using fingerprint based biometric scanner and stores them in a database. This reduces the human effort in manually taking attendance and storing them. The records are securely stored and can be retrieved whenever required. A student can check his attendance, class teacher can check their attendance and their respective class’ attendance and the Head of the Department can check their attendance, staff attendance and all classes’ attendance in their department. One cannot modify those things after stored. A website is to be designed for students, teachers and HOD to log into their accounts and check the attendance.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Fly Ash, Marble Dust and Glass Fibres in the Physical Properties of Concrete : A Review 2021-12-01T11:48:19-05:00 Lavish Sharma Afreen <p style="text-align: justify;">Using Industrial rejects as alternatives to conventional materials is becoming the most attractive option for sustainability in concrete production. Fly ash is a waste material obtained from thermal power plant during combustion of pulverized coal. The marble industry produces a huge amount of waste which is marble dust. The marble dust is generally a highly polluting type of industrial waste due to its alkaline nature and its manufacturing and processing techniques, all of which impose serious health threats to the surrounding. Glass fibres are also a waste product obtained by glass industries. To produce a concrete having low cost by combining different ratios of fly ash with cement and to lower the problems caused by the fly ash on disposal and environmental aspects. The unusual use of fly ash in concrete formation as a supplementary material of cement must be checked as an alternative material to the traditional one. Also, we must seek an alternative for the fine aggregate materials like sand as they are the earth materials which are non-renewable sources by their nature. So, as to find the best replacement of the sand we can use the marble dust. Since, both of the materials we are focusing about are fly ash and marble dust are the wastes or the by product and hence need to be dump somewhere which will cause more problems to the environmental as well as aesthetic aspects. So as to be more optimistic, one must try the alternatives to replace the construction or building materials like cement and sand by fly ash, and marble dust. And here in this project. A series of experiments have been done in a row to detect the optimum percentage of replacement of cement by fly ash whereas sand is to be replaced by marble dust for determining the mechanical properties of concrete. The grade of concrete taken was M30 and grade of cement was 43 OPC. The experimental works carried out for the research were done to find the feasible percentage replacements of constituent materials by supplementary materials. Cement was partially replaced by fly ash at 20%, 30%, 40% and fine aggregate (sand) is partially replaced by marble dust by 20%, 40%, and 60%. Glass fibres were kept constant 1% by concrete and compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural strength will be compared by conventional concrete.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Modelling & Analysis of 66 kV Silicon Rubber Composite Insulators under Polluted Environment 2021-12-01T11:52:52-05:00 Namrata Vasava Ritesh Patel <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper presents the simulation results of potential distribution and electric field distribution 66 kV insulator. For this work Finite Element Method is used. COMSOL Multiphysics software is used to carry out simulation results. Silicon rubber is used as insulating material and Alumina is used as a filler material to construct composite insulator in COMSOL. In this analysis four cases are compared for unfilled case and filled 1) Without Pollution Layer and Without Water Droplets 2) With Pollution Layer and Without Water Droplets 3) Without Pollution Layer and With Water Droplets 4) With Pollution Layer and With Water Droplets. The simulation results shows that after adding fillers in the insulator electric field magnitude near to the terminals reduces in composite insulator compared to the unfilled insulator.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF COOLING TOWER UNDER WIND LOAD USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS 2021-12-01T11:56:01-05:00 Kinchit Soni Dr. Suhasini Kulkarni <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;cooling tower is a heat rejection device, which extract the waste heat of industry to the open atmosphere through cooling of the water stream to a lower temperature. Hyperbolic Cooling towers are mainly subjected to its self-weight and dynamically applied wind loads and earthquake loads. In present study, a cooling tower of 143.50 mt of height has been considered for the dissertation progress. For the purpose of work, wind velocity of 39 m/s, 44 m/s and 47 m/s are applied on tower geometry as per IS: 875 (Part 3)-2015. Where the spacing between two tower as adjusted as per 0.5D, 0.75D and 1.0D as per the minimum criteria of IS: 11504-1985 and angle of wind is adjusted from 0°, 45° and 90°. Support of Ansys Workbatch 18.1 has been adopted and results of pressure variation on surface of shell from 0°, 90° and 180° are recorded. In present study, boundary condition of cooling tower considered are top end free and bottom end fixed. Where, maximum face size of hexahedral mesh is considered as 7000 mm and for tetrahedral 6000 mm respectively.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 DESIGN OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT FOR DBATU CAMPUS 2021-12-01T12:05:01-05:00 Mr. Vijay Mali Mr. Sagar Bhumkar Ms. Akshata Khedeka Prof. A. A. Darge <p style="text-align: justify;">Water is precious commodity that contributes human to live. Various surface and sub-surface sources of pure water is provided by mother earth to all the living beings. Most of the natural water sources are polluted due to various anthropogenic and innate activities. Due to the pollution of water it is incompetent for the use, so to make the competent it is necessary to be treated in water treatment plant (WTP). The objective of this project is to design water treatment plant for population of 5500 near the DBATU college campus with latitude 18°10’6.32” N and longitude 73°20’8.19” E which is located at taluka-Mangaon, Dist-Raigad (MH). Though Konkan region have plenty of water but due to soil characteristics and sloppy nature of ground, water does not get percolated. In rainy season plenty of rain fall in this region, but in summer DBATU campus face the problem of water scarcity. The present WTP in DBATU campus is unable to complete the water demand. The components of WTP are not in working condition. The pipelines and the pressure filter is almost rusted, working period of present WTP is finished. So there is need of new WTP. We designed WTP particularly deals with hydraulic design for a 2MLD to be constructed according to life span of 20 years for the component of WTP. The project compromises design of WTP unit combined as Clariflocculator.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEM USING ECONOMIZER 2021-12-01T12:09:57-05:00 Manjal Varia Lalji Vasani Hiral Vasoya Vrushank Desai Pratik Patel <p style="text-align: justify;">In present days it is difficult to find out more suitable eco-friendly and more efficient vapor compression cycle. Using economizer enable us to reduce cooling time. R404a refrigerant contributes towards ecofriendly system and having better performance. Comparative analysis between VCR system and VCR with economizer enables us to achieve better enhancement in refrigeration field. Heating load calculation totally derived from industrial existing method. COP of this system will be slightly more than normal VCR system. There will be lots of scope related to VCR system like effect of refrigerant, change in design of components, change in structure, improvement in working components. Cooling time is the most important factors of our analysis through introducing economizer. The design of economizer also plays an important role in reduction in cooling time.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON EFFECT OF FERROCEMENT JACKETING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COLUMNS WITH PLAIN SURFACE AND A GENTLE WAVE TYPE CONFIGURATION (PSWC) BARS 2021-12-01T12:14:36-05:00 Mukesh F. Luhar Prof. Mili Sankhala <p style="text-align: justify;">The work focused on performance of RCC column depend by longitudinal reinforcement and ferrocement under various static axial load. RCC column specimens were depend on vertical steel reinforcement wrapping by various amount of ferro mesh and then covering with cement mortar. The various results shown significantly improvement of the strength and ductility of the strengthening column by reference of column without strengthening. Ductility ofsteel is also significantly improving by the increasing of the total volume of ferro mesh. Comparative study is carried out with column jacketing with PSWC bars and retrofitting with ferrocement jacketing. The use of PSWCbars, characterized by their plain surface and a gentle wave-type configuration, can enhance the life span of concrete structures several fold through minimization of the rate of corrosion in rebars. This present study is aimed to check the load carrying capacity containing PSWC bars and retrofitted with ferrocement jacketing.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A REVIEW OF HVOF COATED STEELS FOR HYDRO TURBINE APPLICATIONS 2021-12-01T13:24:34-05:00 Sulaxna Kaushik Mr. Somvir Arya <p style="text-align: justify;">In this review, the slurry erosion behaviour of various HVOF coated steels for hydro turbine applications has been addressed. The specific surface characteristics can be imparted to substrate material by selection of suitable coating materials. Hard coating particles such as B4C and NiCr can be incorporated in structure of composite coatings to obtain refined structure with increased hardness, adhesion and erosion resistance. The various process parameters such as impingement angle, impact velocity and sand discharge have remarkable effect on slurry erosion characteristics of composite coated substrates. HVOF is a promising methodology due to capability of fabrication of hard thermal coatings with high scratch resistance, excellent wear and superior slurry erosion resistance and other advantages associated with the procedure.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF HVOF COATED B4C +NiCr STEEL FOR HYDRO TURBINE APPLICATIONS 2021-12-01T13:27:23-05:00 Sulaxna Kaushik Mr. Somvir Arya <p style="text-align: justify;">Higher micro hardness, adhesion and erosion resistance of materials used for hydro turbine applications is required to achieve a longer service life of equipments. In this paper, B4C +NiCr composite coatings were prepared on 18Cr8Ni stainless steel with HVOF process to improve hardness, adhesion strength and erosion resistance of coated substrate. The effect of process parameters impingement angle, impact velocity impingement angle and sand discharge on slurry erosion characteristics of composite coated substrate was investigated. The microstructure of coating was analyzed by using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The incorporation of hard B4C and NiCr particles results in refined structure and increased hardness, adhesion and erosion resistance.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SHEAR WALL AND PORTAL BRACING BUILDING 2021-12-01T13:30:37-05:00 Vishakha G. Shirke Varsha Yadav <p style="text-align: justify;">A large proportion of world’s population lives under higher seismic risk region so there is a need of construction technologies which resist higher seismic forces and Shear wall is such type of technology. Shear wall are used as an efficient way to resist lateral load in RC building. Shear wall stabilize the whole structure against the effect of strong horizontal seismic loading and impart stiffness to the building. The main goal of this research is to find out of Displacement of the building. The present study is an attempt to understand the effectiveness of story displacement on different storey height of building. Four different height of building G+5 to G+20 every five incremental story has been taken. The response spectrum analysis of building of portal bracing in place of shear wall was carried out using STAAD PRO software. At the end, building response parameter Story Displacement was compared.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 DEVELOPMENT ON FIELD REWORK INDEX TO MINIMIZE THE IMPACT OF REWORK ON BITUMINOUS ROAD PROJECTS 2021-12-01T13:33:47-05:00 Denish bhalara Rushabh Shah keyur Shah <p style="text-align: justify;">The Roadway projects is faced with the significant problems of high cost of project delivery, bad financial performance and inability to deliver value to customers on time. As a result, the projects has been criticized extensively for poor performance and inefficient productivity. “The unnecessary work which incorrectly done for the first time is know as rework”. To investigate the causes of rework in road projects, a total of 52 causes were first identified.150 questionnaire survey was further distributed to stakeholders (owner, site engineer, contractor, labour) out of which 97 people has responded to it. Finally, a factor analysis revealed 14 major factors has been identified by applying IMPI method. Further this 14 factor will be identified with FRI method. In that reduction tool for field rework index (FRI) is developed for effective road work.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PIT SLOPE ANGLE OPTIMISATION OF BHANEGAON OPENCAST COAL MINE, NAGPUR AREA, WESTERN COALFIELDS LIMITED - USING NUMERICAL METHODS. 2021-12-01T13:36:40-05:00 Om Narayan Singh Ankit Agarwal Dr. S.S. Gupte Mahmood Anwar <p style="text-align: justify;">Coal is a major source of energy in India and other parts of the world. Since last decade, demand of coal gone up many fold. Coal is major raw material for thermal power station, 85% of India’s coal production in consumed by thermal power station. Major portion of the countries’ coal demand is met through open cast coal mines and very little from underground coal mines. Since the coal deposit closer to the surface are depleting fast therefore in future coal deposit have to be mined at greater depth. As the depth of mining the coal increases the stripping ratio also increases. Therefore the mining organization tries to mine the coal with the steepest possible overall slope angle vis-à-vis sufficient stability. This leads to the substantial reduction in quantity of overburden to be removed. This is realized through financial benefits. Since working at steeper slope angle with sufficient stability also reduces the surface land required for stacking the overburden. This exercise was conducted for the dip side working of Bhanegaon open cast coal mine WCL Nagpur area to optimize the benefits of reduction in overburden that is to be mine for exposing the coal and also reduction in the surface land requirement for storage of the overburden. It was found that the dip side pit is stable at steeper angle which is suggested based on numerical methods analysis. A 2D approach using Finite Element Method with the help of Rocscience RS2.0 has been used to analyze the above situation.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 REVIEW STUDY ON THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGES. 2021-12-01T13:41:13-05:00 Mayank Aggarwal Megha Gupta <p style="text-align: justify;">Nowadays bridges are being constructed either of ordinary reinforced concrete or of prestressed concrete having longitudinal girders and transverse cross girders. The method that is used for the dynamic analysis of such bridges is FINITE ELEMENT METHOD and for the implementation we use the commercial software (SAP 2000N, CSI BRIDGE 2017). The bridges that we discussed was subjected to the several dynamic loads such as vehicular live load, seismic load and also the static loads such as deck slab load, footpath and crash barrier loads. The vehicular load distribution in the girder is a very complex phenomenon which was calculated by using Morice-Little load distribution method. For the study and the comparison purposes we vary the geometry and the number of longitudinal girders of the superstructure and the bending moment, shear force, and deflection was checked and compared.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Implementation of Smart farming using IoT 2021-12-01T13:43:34-05:00 M. Lakshmi Prasanna SK. Mahammad Rafi T. Chakradhar reddy M. Amulya Y. Amarbabu <p style="text-align: justify;">Basically different developing countries across world are using traditional methods of agriculture techniques for a long time. Because of technical advancements, smart farming which can be automated and implemented with IoT. So automation can precisely control the energy consumption, water wastage and also detects the level of harmful gases in field with much reliability. As the IoT is developing rapidly and it can be widely applied in all wireless technologies. In this paper the introduction of smart farming technique may limit many problems for the farmers like: bearing from hot sun, rain and night times burdens etc., By means of an electronic system with embedded devices. A detailed implementation of smartest techniques in agriculture is illustrated and all the advantages are clearly explained. We hope that by using the disruptive IoT technology across multi industries including agriculture reduces waste and cost of implementation by enhancing the quality and quantity of agriculture products using Atmega328 microcontroller, Esp8266 Node MCU SOC with in-built wi-fi module and different types of sensors.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Intra-City Cooling Logistics 2021-12-01T13:53:00-05:00 Ridham S. Patel Hardik R. Sakpal Vyom S. Shukla Yash S . Patel Sunny J. Rach <p style="text-align: justify;">The Project titled “Intra-City Cooling Logistics” is “The transport refrigeration system incorporating phase change material (PCM) is proposed to maintain refrigerated trucks at the desired thermal conditions. The phase change material (PCM) is charged by refrigeration unit located off the vehicle when stationary. The PCM is discharged and provides cooling when in service. The prototype system was constructed and test results proved that the proposed refrigeration system is feasible for mobile transport and analysis shows that delivery of refrigerated products can be made with a PCM system having a weight comparable to that of an on board conventional refrigeration system with less than half of the energy cost[1]. It will be used for intra-city transportation (within city) as it is not available in today’s market. It will be used on 3-wheeler vehicle to reach at the interior parts of city. It will be used for transport of food items like bakery items, dairy products mainly ice cream, sea foods, frozen foods and also medicinal supplies.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 STEP BY STEP MODELING AND SIMULATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) SYSTEM 2021-12-01T13:57:27-05:00 Samira Sada Jatinkumar Patel <p style="text-align: justify;">this paper studies a unique step-by-step procedure for the simulation of photovoltaic (PV) modules in Matlab/Simulink. One-diode equivalent circuit is used to investigate I-V and P-V curve of a typical solar (PV) module and equivalent circuit with a series resistance and a parallel resistance is discussed.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 MODELING AND CONTROL OF A BATTERY BASED PHOTOVOLTAIC GRID CONNECTED SYSTEM 2021-12-01T14:00:06-05:00 Samira Sadat Jatinkumar Patel <p style="text-align: justify;">currently, due to the less usage of conventional electricity resources and growing problems of environmental pollution, renewable energy resources are playing a large function in generating energy. The solar and wind are popular renewable energy sources among all of them, solar energy has grown to be a promising, famous and alternative supply due to its advantages consisting of abundance, no pollution, renewability and maintenance loose. Here three independent control loops are used to control the entire system. Those are battery control for bidirectional power flow between battery and DC-link through bidirectional buck-boost converter, MPPT control for extracting maximum power and inverter control for maintaining stable voltage and current at local load. The complete system is simulated and analyzed in MATLAB/SIMULINK.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF BHANEGAON OPENCAST COAL MINE, NAGPUR AREA, WESTERN COALFIELDS LIMITED - USING NUMERICAL METHODS. 2021-12-01T14:03:15-05:00 Ankit Agarwal1 Om Narayan Singh Dr. S. S. Gupte <p style="text-align: justify;">Coal is a major source of raw material in power generation of the country and its contribution is about 90% for power generation. For last four decade we have been tapping easily mineable coal reserves in the country. Major part of India’s coal production comes from opencast coal mines. Though, coal deposits close to the surface are depleting fast in the country, but there is no way out other than mining coal deposits through opencast mining lying at greater depths. At greater depth problem of slope stability is prominent. Further, if, the deposit is located close to the water reservoir, then it aggravates the problem of slope stability due to ground water movement. It has been observed that irrespective of the type of slope, majority of the slope failures are due to ground water hydrostatic pressure built up. Bhanegaon opencast mine is 33 km from Nagpur which is close to the confluence of two rivers i.e. Kanhan and Pench on rise side of the deposit. In this mine, destabilization of benches on rise side of the property are being regularly experienced. Slope stability analysis shows that ground water seepage is the cause of such failures. In Bhanegaon Opencast Mine, analysis has been conducted to analyse the cause of slope destabilization. In the present scenario limit equilibrium method and two dimensional finite element and finite difference approach have been used to simulate and analyse the slopes.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In Present study rise side of the opencast have been analysed for slope stability. It has been analysed with Limit Equilibrium and Numerical Methods with overall slope angle and water saturation levels. Study shows that reduction of hydrostatic pressure by draining water improves the slope stability drastically as compared with other alternatives.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 3 Axial Positioning System For Large Work Spaces 2021-12-01T14:07:04-05:00 Suhaas Varma Jampana Pramod Chandra Kakumani Venkatesh E Chayan Paul <p style="text-align: justify;">Global Positioning System that we are using today is 2-dimentional while mapping. In this developing world, most of the buildings and offices are huge with a lot of stories. Positioning system today helps us while we travel larger distances, but the problem arises when we get closer and closer, we get confused. Consider a huge work space which is more than 500,000sft and the building is 48 floors long and if a new person has to meet an executive and the location could be quite confusing. With 3 Axial Positioning System we can transfer 3-dimensional data (latitude, longitude, floor number) meeting a person get easier.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 “Parametric Study of Twin Arch Bridge Structure” 2021-12-01T14:10:41-05:00 Laksh B. Chavda Prof. Kaushik C. Koradia <p style="text-align: justify;">Arch Bridges in which location of deck with respect to the arch rib are deck type, through type and semithrough type. Through arch bridge in which deck is above the base of an arch structure and top rises above deck. Which comes under the special shape arch bridges. An arch is a compression element. Resolving forces into compressive stresses and, in turn eliminating tensile stresses. The forces of arch will push outward at the base is called thrust. Rise of arch has more important in the support forces. In this study different parameters like Reaction, Bending moment, Axial force, Deflection in twin arch having varying parameter such as arch rise, angle of inclination with vertical etc.</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EFFECT OF SUPER-PLASTICIZER BS FUTURA PCX 107 ON PPC CEMENT FOR M25 GRADE OF CONCRETE 2021-12-02T00:55:29-05:00 Md Sakib Perwez Khan Arfat Ahmed Harmeet Sngh Aadev Mann Harmandeep Singh Lakshpreet Singh <p style="text-align: justify;">Plasticizers and Super-plasticizers are well known as water reducing agent. More specifically the superplasticizer has the abilities to reduce high range water requirement in concrete. Apart from the quality of water reducing, they also affect other properties of concrete to a certain limit. BS FUTURA PCX 107 a Sodium Naphthalene Formaldehyde, Melamine or Lignosulphate based technology super-plasticiser as per EN 206-1 is added to the concrete mixture to expand its functionality. It is immensely appropriate to check the impact of these admixtures when blended with concrete mixture to get positive outcomes. This study was performed to quantify the advantages of the above super-plasticiser on the characteristic strength and the standard deviation of the concrete strength for the Mix designed proportion with a slump of 25-50mm. The study was performed on 40 of cubes out of which 20 were formed with super-plasticizer and 20 were formed without superplasticizer. After 28 days, hardened concrete cubes were tested on Compression testing machine (CTM) and then the cube-strength were analysed. The analysis confirms that the effect of super-plasticizer was as desired</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY TO ANALYSE THE EFFECT OF USING GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER (GFRP) BARS AS MAIN REINFORCEMENT IN BEAMS AND COLUMNS 2021-12-02T01:04:10-05:00 Tabish Izhar Qadir Raza <p style="text-align: justify;">In this study, beams measuring 150 mm wide x 150 mm deep and 700 mm length were reinforced and casted with 10 mm diameter steel bars, Plain surfaced Glass Fibre reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars and ribbed surfaced GFRP bars. Out of the nine Beams, three were casted with plain surfaced GFRP bars, three with ribbed surfaced GFRP bars as per American Concrete Institute (ACI- 440) and the remaining three with steel bars as per detailing obtained by IS 456: 2000 – plain and reinforced concrete code of practice. Similar approach was conducted in case of columns. All the beams and columns were provided with 8 mm diameter steel stirrups. The beams and columns were tested after 28 days of curing period. The beams were tested for flexural strength and deflection under two point loading test from flexural testing machine while columns were tested for compressive strength under compression testing machine of capacity 3000 kN. The performance of beam and column specimen was analysed with reference to the important parameters like reinforcement material type (GFRP and Steel) and concrete compressive strength. It was comprehensively noted that ribbed GFRP bars in columns showed better performance than steel bars reinforced columns considering the appearance of initial cracks. In beams, although the load carrying capacity of steel bars reinforced beams was high but ribbed bars reinforced beams showed promising response in deflection.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A comprehensive review on ferrofluid convective heat transfer under the influence of external magnetic source 2021-12-02T01:08:38-05:00 Snehal V. Kadbhane Prof. (Dr.) Dilip R. Pangavhane <p style="text-align: justify;">Ferrofluid is a colloidal liquid, consisting of nanoparticles of magnetic material suspended in a carrier liquid. Its important property is, though it is liquid still responds to external magnetic field and becomes highly magnetic in the presence of same. This property of ferrofluid has widened its use in many applications like energy harvesting, heat exchanger, electronic cooling, seal, lubrication and damping. In few applications like fluid transport in space, conventional convective heat transfer is inadequate due to reduced or complete absence of gravity. Also conventionally water or air is used as a working medium in convective heat transfer application. As both have lower convective heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer rate is poor with them. Thermophysical properties of ferrofluid can<br>be controlled by varying externally applied magnetic field. Addition of ferrofluid, under the action of externally applied magnetic field, increases thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer coefficient significantly as compared to base liquid. Research work should be carried on investigating performance of ferrofluid in convective heat transfer applications, on which yet very less or no research is carried like I.C. engine cooling, electronic cooling, and heat exchanger applications in order to enhance convective heat transfer rate and thus performance of devices using ferrofluid as a working medium. This paper focuses on research work carried till now in the area of ferrofluid based convective heat transfer and area in which ferrofluid based convective heat transfer should be explored.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS, ITS APPLICATIONS AND RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES: A REVIEW 2021-12-02T01:13:46-05:00 Harsh A. Patel B. S. Patel J. P. Hadiya <p style="text-align: justify;">Energy storage systems have a essential role in recent years. Flywheel energy storage system is catching a eye of many researchers these days, since it has certain advantages over other existing energy storage systems. Flywheels’ attribute consists of high lifespan, very low maintenance, higher operation life, very low effect on nature and atmosphere, quick charge-discharge cycle, increased power-density and the ability to hold huge quantity of energy. The principal factors of FES technology includes material properties of flywheel, detailed geometrical specification, and bearing system supporting every elements, through which energy storing capacity and the energy per unit mass of flywheel are diametrically affected. Despite of rigorous research going on, Flywheel energy storage technology is not fully developed. With the help of new advances, the cost of Flywheel energy storage will significantly drop and the technology will play a noteworthy part in achieving global energy sustainability. The uses of Flywheel energy storage system have a broadspectrum beginning from very tiny purpose and go as far as large space applications. This paper presents a compendious<br>review of different existing energy storage systems, flywheel energy storage system, its components and its applications</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF QUATERNARY CEMENT CONCRETE AND MORTAR 2021-12-02T01:18:51-05:00 E.Srinivasa Rao K.Venkata Sayi Sankeerth S.Eswara Rao <p style="text-align: justify;">Cement manufacturing involves environmental degrade as it evolves CO2 in to atmosphere. The depletion of natural resource also causes environmental impact. One of the optimum methods to conserve the natural resources and reduce the environmental impact is to use supplementary cementitious materials. In the present study, the SCMs such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, and silica fume were used as a partial replacement to cement at 30%, 40% and 50%. Seven concrete and mortar mixtures were designed to study the compressive strength of the quaternary blended mortar and concrete at 3, 7, 28, 56 days. The grade of concrete considered in this study is M40. Quaternary blended concrete mix C60F10G25S5 showed comparative strength in compare with control concrete at 56 days. The quaternary blended mortar mixes C60F10G25S5 and C50F15G30S5 showed higher compressive strength<br>by 3.06% and 3.76% than control mix at the age of 56 days.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE BY USING RED MUD AS A REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT 2021-12-02T01:23:35-05:00 Palak R Patel Prof. Jitendra B Suthar <p style="text-align: justify;">This research was conducted to study the characteristics of concrete using red mud to replace cement in concrete. The Bayer process, which produces alumina in bauxite ores, features low energy efficiency and produces significant amounts of highly alkaline bauxite residues such as dust, also known as red clay. Currently, red mud is produced in almost the same mass ratio as metallurgical alumina and is placed in an enclosed or unsealed artificial reservoir (landfill), causing significant environmental problems. It is composed of oxides of iron, titanium, aluminum and silica and is contained with some trace elements. The presence of alumina and iron oxide in the red mud complements the deficiency of the same ingredients in the limestone, the main raw material for cement production.<br>The presence of soda in red mud when used in clinker production neutralizes the sulfur content of pet coke used in clinker-cured cement production and adds curing properties to cement. Based on economic considerations as well as environmental issues, there has been a tremendous worldwide effort to address red mud management issues - use, storage and disposal. Other routes of using red mud are known to some extent, but they have not proven economically viable or commercially feasible. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the strength characteristics of aluminum red mud. Project work focuses on the suitability of the red mud that has been obtained for construction. The five test groups consisted of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of the red clay substitute percentages. This paper points out another promising direction for the proper use of red mud.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Real Time Slope Failure Prediction System 2021-12-02T01:27:39-05:00 Pritesh J Mewada Sakshi V Singh Prathamesh R Mundye Yuvraj Chavda <p style="text-align: justify;">Slope failures are most prominent in hilly regions facing heavy downpour of water. This leads to blockage of roads, loss of life and economy, etc. This can be detected prior to its commencement by using an array of sensors integrated with a microcontroller by precise programming and calibration. But implementation of such a system in real world is extremely difficult due to unpredictable conditions. This paper focuses on predicting failure of slope in a controlled environment. This reduces errors and difficulty in experimental setup. We were successful in predicting failure of the designed slope under conditions maintained with the help of Arduino and Moisture sensors. Telemetry program was used to plot data on graph.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ROAD DETECTION REGION GROWING BY MARKOV RANDOM FIELD 2021-12-02T01:39:20-05:00 Pradeep Kumar Parida Swarna Prabha Jena Debaraj Rana <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;Roads are important information for city planning, navigation, and disaster management.. Road detection is widely used for driver assistance process and it detect white markings on a road. Image considered road detection is a vital and challenging job in several actual world applications like autonomous driving, road departure warning. LD is an important factor in many intelligent transport systems. Road color and text, signs of roads and lanes are the main symptoms of human driving. This criterion leads to expanding the research is being committed and focused on efficient techniques for extracting the useful features i.e. roads from the input images. This paper is mainly focused on the earlier works in this field such as numerous segmentation methods. The road area prediction provides good road representations. That is why this problem is still open and needs to be solved. In our propose work, we have used<br>different dataset and estimated it. Here we apply our technique in the images for road detection. Then region growing is effective to detect the road region utilizing the feature extracted from the road area. In this, we have used Markov Random Field for color segmentation in region growing of road detection and through this, we calculate time parameter</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Influence and Interrelation of dykes on the Quartz and Feldspar deposits around Bhiknoor Region, Kamareddy District, Telangana State 2021-12-02T01:44:30-05:00 Y.V. Sanjay Das S. Ramanaiah <p style="text-align: justify;">Bhiknoor Region in Kamareddy District, Telangana State, is endowed with a variety of Mineral Resources, the prominent ones being, Quartz and Feldspar minerals. Being rich in Alkalis (K2O+Na2O in the range of 13- 14%) and having lower Fe2O3 percentage (less than 0.10%), the minerals (Quartz and Feldspar) from these region, are being extensively Mined, Processed and Transported to different end users, in domestic, as well as in International Market. Quartz and Feldspar minerals, find extensive use in Ceramic &amp; Glass Industries and to a few extents in Ramming Mass Industries and Cement Industries. There are number of economically viable working Mines of Quartz and Feldspar, around Bhiknoor Region. As per the information gathered from the Assistant Director of Mines and Geology, Kamareddy (Table 1), there are about 6 Working Mines of Quartz and Feldspar and a number of Quarry Lease/Mining Lease<br>Applications, for Quartz and Feldspar minerals, indicating a huge demand for Quartz and Feldspar Minerals from this sector. Various Organizations, both Government (TSMDC – Telangana State Mine Development Corporation) and Private Entrepreneurs like Gimpex-Imerys Inida Private Limited, Trimex Industries Private Limited, Sibelco Asia Private Limited, Ceramin Inida Pvt.Ltd (A unit of RAK Ceramics), etc have been actively engaged in Mining, Prospecting, Exploitation and Exploration of Quartz and Feldspar Minerals in Bhiknoor Region. Although there are various indicators for locating Quartz and Feldspar Minerals, including Geo botanical guides, studies reveal that the most prominent indicator being, occurrence of Basic dykes (Intrusive) in the vicinity of all the Feasible - Quartz and Feldspar Mines, thereby acting as Geological guides, for identifying new Quartz and Feldspar Mines in this sector</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF BLACK COTTON SOIL WITH MARBLE DUST 2021-12-02T01:51:26-05:00 MANISH KUMAR SUMAN NEHA CHAUDHARY SANJAY SINGH DR. BISWAJIT ACHARYA <p style="text-align: justify;">Black cotton soil is an expansive soil. It is a boon for the farmhands but also a nuisance for civil engineers as it shows swelling-shrinkage behavior with seasonal variations in moisture content. Montmorillonite mineral kept the onus for this behavior. On field various additive i.e. fly-ash, lime, various bio-enzymes are being used for improving the swell-shrink behavior of black cotton soil. In the present paper, we will be analyzing the efficacy of waste marble dust to improve the swell-shrink behavior of black cotton soil. Following the research work, we found an effective dose of 30% marble dust by weight of black cotton soil. Results show an increase of 193% in CBR and around 43% in UCS value.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Semi Supervised PU learning method for deceptive detection using MKNN 2021-12-02T02:31:38-05:00 Priyanka Patani Pinal Patel <p style="text-align: justify;">Currently, in the era of E-Commerce a huge number of user opinion, user reviews and feedbacks are posted on the portal by thousands of users for any services and products. Reviews posted by the users are important source of information both end of the business. Mostly in online selling customers are rely on reviews before ordering the services online. Unfortunately, there is an problem of deceptive opinions, that is, not by real users. Deceptive reviews are aimed to improve the ratings of low quality products or services (Positive Reviews) or they are aimed to downgrade the high quality services of other businesses (negative reviews). For our research in this research paper we have focused on the identification of every type of deceptive reviews, either it is positive or it is negative. Because of the scarcity of samples of deceptive reviews, we propose to present the problem of the “detection of deceptive opinions<br>employing PU-learning”. PU-learning (Positive Unlabelled Learning) is a semi-supervised technique that is used to build a binary classifier. Mostly it builds classifier on the basis of positive (i.e., deceptive opinions) and unlabelled examples only. Concretely, we propose a novel approach for detection of deceptive spam using PU Learning and Modified KNN algorithm</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assessing the Complexity of Software Bug Severity using Evolutionary SOM Clustering Approach 2021-12-02T02:37:41-05:00 M.Chalapathi Rao Dr.P.Suryanarayana Babu <p style="text-align: justify;">As software demands increase and software delivery span decreased, ensuring software quality becomes a challenge. However, due to software complexity and inadequate testing, no software can claim to be error-free. Maintenance activities are therefore required to ensure that the software works smoothly. Software bug repositories are of great source of knowledge. When a bug is identified by a tester or software engineer, its related information is entered in Bug Tracking System. During its life time, a bug enters into various bug states for resolution. These bug tracking systems enable users to report the bugs found while the software is running. However, the severity prediction has recently gained a lot of attention in software maintenance. Bugs with higher severity should be corrected before bugs with lower severity. In this paper, an evolutionary interactive approach is proposed to analyze the bug reports<br>and assesses the severity. This paper presents a SBCC – Software Bug Complexity Cluster using Self Organizing Maps (SOM) approach. In this SBCC a feature matrix is constructed using bug durations and software bug complexities are grouped into different clusters including Blocker, Critical, major, trivial and minor by specifying severity using two different methods, namely- k-means and SOM. The accuracy of different bug complexities are estimated using bug duration, proximity error and different distance functions. Our systematic study has ascertained that the proximity error and fitness on SOM has better accuracy and performance compared to K-Means. The collected results showed that the SBCC attained better performance with respect to fitness and cluster proximity error.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Study the impact of underground metro rail induced vibration 2021-12-02T02:41:33-05:00 Suryanshu Dahisaria Major Dr. C.S. Sanghvi <p style="text-align: justify;">Vibrations induced by rail and road traffic is of great concern in urban cities which reduce useful life of structure. The present work discusses the measurement of level of vibration during construction stage of underground metro rail and correlate with vibration criteria given by codes of various country. Metro rail generate vibration at time of construction and operation stage which propagate in soil eventually reaching the foundation of building and causing them to vibrate. Metro rail induced vibration create long term effect on structure which include fatigue and settlement of foundation. This vibration can be controlled at various level along transmission path between source and receiver. Level of vibrations are measured at several location at different depth from ground level and the<br>prevalent soil strata is sandy silt. Impact of road traffic vibration is also considered in research work.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 APPLICATION OF DEEP LEARNING FRAMEWORK (ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE) FOR CONCRETE GRADATION 2021-12-02T02:45:08-05:00 Mohammad Sakib Perwez Khan Harmeet Sngh Aadev Mann Harmandeep Singh <p style="text-align: justify;">Concrete gradation or calculating the strength that a given mix of concrete will give is one of the major concerns of a civil engineering/construction engineering. To find the grade of concrete different destructive and nondestructive method are employed. This calculation of grade of concrete helps in the verification and confirmation of the overall stability and safety of the given structure.<br>In this study, an attempt has made to apply the deep learning framework of artificial intelligence to predict the grade of hardened concrete mix of life 28 days. A deep learning framework was made to predict the grade of concrete by analysing the photograph of a hardened concrete mix. At a small scale few grades of concrete were designed and casted in the laboratory and the pictorial data was collected under specific conditions. Then this data was used to train the framework and then the framework was used to predict the grade of a random data of concrete.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Stability and Bifurcation in a Fractional Order Brusselator Model And Its Discretization 2021-12-02T02:49:44-05:00 A. George Maria Selvam R. Dhineshbabu D. Vignesh <p style="text-align: justify;">The Periodic temporal oscillation and formation of a spatial pattern in chemical reactions are major part of nonlinear chemical dynamics. Although the history of oscillatory reactions in chemical kinetics is long enough, it was less than quarter century ago that chemical oscillator was characterized. The key features of such oscillating reactions are the auto catalysis. In this present work, a fractional order Brusselator model is proposed. First we prove the existence and uniqueness of the solutions of fractional order dynamical system and with discretization process its discrete version is obtained. Local stability of the fixed point of Brusselator model has been studied in both commensurate and incommensurate fractional order system. Also we discuss the bifurcation parameters; it is proved that the discrete fractional order system undergoes a flip (period doubling) and Neimark – Sacker bifurcation at the<br>interior (coexistence) fixed point. Finally numerical examples are provided to validate the analytical results and the rich dynamical nature of the discretized system is exhibited.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EFFECTS OF LEACHATE ON GROUND WATER DUE TO MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL OF DADDU MAJRA, CHANDIGARH 2021-12-02T02:55:12-05:00 Abhishek Kumar Singh Shakti Kumar <p style="text-align: justify;">Municipal Solid Waste Management is an issue of major concern throughout the world. In developing countries such as India with a rapid increase in population, industrialization and urbanization, management of solid waste is a challenging task. Lack of budget, untrained manpower, inefficient collection, transportation and storage systems are the major area of concern. Among all the waste disposal methods landfilling is the simplest, cheapest and most cost-effective method of disposing of waste in both developed and developing nations of the world. Leaching of toxic chemicals with high BOD, COD, heavy metals such as chromium, lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel and organic &amp; inorganic compounds like sodium, magnesium, calcium, ammonium, sulphates, chlorides has an adverse effect on the ground water various physicochemical parameters and microbiological examinations besides heavy<br>metals and ground water samples was conducted. In this study landfill site of Chandigarh which is a non-engineered landfill and located at Daddu Majra is examined for leachate characteristics and effect of the leachate on ground water. Leachate samples are collected from Daddu Majra landfill site and ground water samples are collected from the nearby available sources. The result of this study shows that the samples at shallower depth and near to landfill have traces of pollutants and as we go further deep and far from the landfill site the quality of water is improving. Thus, implies of pollution is due to leachates from the landfill site</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A REVIEW ON USE OF WAX MATERIAL FOR ENHANCING PROPERTIES OF BITUMEN 2021-12-02T02:59:07-05:00 Gosai Chiragkumar Prahaladpuri Prof. Srinath Karli <p style="text-align: justify;">Transportation is key to the economic development of every country. There are various modes of transportation are available from which Road transportation is very essential because it provides the feeder service to all other modes. There are mainly two types of pavements are used in road transportation viz. Flexible and Rigid Pavement. Flexible pavement is made up of bitumen, which is by product of distillation of petroleum product. As during the construction of flexible pavement, the mixing temperature for bituminous mix is between 130 to 175 °C as per the grade of bitumen. Now it has been seen that at this temperature, CO2 emission is very high and it is not healthy for the workers. So, bitumen emulsion and cut back are used in the mixed design to decrease the mixing<br>temperature. One more approach i.e. use of wax is emerging for the reduction of mixing temperature. Many countries are using waxes as admixture in bitumen mix. In this research attempt will be made to evaluate the change in physical properties of bitumen and stability of bitumen mix by adding the wax as admixture in VG30 grade of bitumen.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A STUDY ON DIFFERENT SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS IN CLOUD ENVIRONMENT 2021-12-02T03:02:21-05:00 PRIYA.B.R, Dr.S.DHANALAKSHMI <p style="text-align: justify;">Cloud computing is an advanced concept of delivering internet services from a pool of internet resources. The resources can be shared very efficiently using cloud environment. The resources in cloud are scattered and it is essential for an efficient scheduling algorithm to access these resources. Different task scheduling algorithms are used to schedule the task effectively. The main goal of these task scheduling algorithms is to reduce the turnaround time and should be cost effective. Many parameters should be taken into account while selecting a scheduling algorithm like throughput, latency, bandwidth, computational time, physical distance. The scheduling algorithms posses many problems regarding the availability and reliability of the resources. This paper deals with the study of<br>various scheduling algorithms used in cloud environment. A comparative study of various scheduling algorithms is also provided.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PAVER BLOCKS USING WASTE PLASTIC 2021-12-02T03:05:39-05:00 Prakash Hanchinal Raju Jakkappannava Shivanand Rathod Sunil Mayachari <p style="text-align: justify;">The world is dying, we are drowning in plastic. In the last 10 years we are produced more plastics then the latest century. 50% of the plastic we consume has a onetime use, each year enough plastic is produced. 80 million tons of plastics are dumped in oceans every year. In this plastic degradation speed of 500-1000 years. One million of sea birds and a hundred thousand of mammals are killed by plastic. Only 6.5% of the plastics recycled. That’s why we can make difference i.e. paver blocks using waste plastic. Different mixes of (M-sand: plastic) ratios are prepared and then tested. The ratios being tested are (1:3) and (1:6) by weight, then result will be compared to the normal paver blocks. Finally in this project we have to reduce 70-80% plastic waste by using this project. Civil Engineer’s duty is not just to build the buildings and also save the whole environment and nation.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 BIM-based facility management: A critical appraisal of benefits and challenges 2021-12-02T03:10:51-05:00 Naman Jain Sakshi Gupta <p style="text-align: justify;">For the past few decades, construction industry has seen slow and steady growth with respect to innovation and productivity. This debate was finally renewed with the introduction of building information modeling (BIM), which has emerged as a probable solution for facility managers to counter the challenges of poor interoperability and information handling during project handover stage. Also, in the Indian context, with the increasing development, use of new and latest technology becomes an integral part, which instigates a need of using BIM along with other technologies. However, despite the advantages like automation in data entry and ease of accessing the data, BIM in facility management (FM) is being adopted very slowly. A comprehensive literature review reveals that there is an improvement related to the accurac of facility management data which increases the efficiency of executing work orders. It also reveals that using BIM in FM for existing buildings is a challenging task with very few real world case studies. This paper aims to analyze the values added by BIM in FM and the challenges that obstruct the exploitation of the same. In particular, this paper contains a qualitative study of the state-of-art literature scrutinizing the interactions of BIM and FM.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A STUDY OF CHANGE IN ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF EXPANSIVE SOIL ON TREATED WITH CALCIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION 2021-12-02T03:14:33-05:00 Prakhar Gupta Sanjay Singh C.D. Prasad <p style="text-align: justify;">Primary step while constructing a structure is to evaluate the bearing capacity of the soil strata over which the foundation of the structure will be laid on. As the much larger part of south India and some parts of Madhya Pradesh and southern region of Rajasthan has expansive soil. While this soil is great for the farmer as it is rich in nutrients but, it causes problems to the Civil engineers. The expansive soil shows its characteristic swelling and shrinking behavior along with seasonal variation as the water available to be absorbed by the soil varies with seasons. This volumetric change in the soil strata causes excessive damage to the structure. To overcome this an engineer have to enhance the engineering properties of the soil. On the field, various methods are being used viz. Addition of calcareous materials like lime, marble dust, etc. But, many of these methods are cumbersome due to they are more<br>laborious and not quite effective while using at larger projects. An easy method can also be applied which is more effective and less laborious that is the addition of property enhancing material in solution form. So that the mixing will be effective and so the results will be more worthy. The present study is a critical evaluation of the addition of calcium chloride solution in black cotton soil. Concentration of the CaCl2 solution adopted is 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%. Results show that the solution of 3% CaCl2 concentration found to be the optimum dose. Swelling pressure reduced by 67% and the Unconfined Compressive strength increased by 30%</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ENERGY EFFICIENT TASK SCHEDULING USING DVFS SCHEME 2021-12-02T03:18:57-05:00 Akanksha, Nirmal kaur Ravreet kaur <p style="text-align: justify;">For redundant energy consumption, power optimization appears as a key performance parameter for the HPC (High Performance Computing) platform. Scheduling plays a vital role in attaining minimum make-span. The main focus of this paper is to minimize the energy consumption of application using DVFS. In this research, an algorithm named as is proposed for efficient energy to schedule DAG on heterogeneous graph G(V,E). The system performance is enhanced by reducing the energy consumption by considering computation energy of processors. DVFS with HEFT task scheduling algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm copes effectively and reduces energy consumption of applications. The work has generated heterogeneous graphs from homogenous graph models.<br>From the experiments, it is observed that when DVFS is used, the energy consumption is reduced by 11.77%</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 TEAFFIC FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE PROPOSED HIMMATNAGAR TO MEHSANA RAILWAY LINK. 2021-12-02T03:23:05-05:00 Jaimin M. Patel Bhavya S. Patel Dr. H. R. Varia Hinal B. Thakar <p style="text-align: justify;">The proposed study is aimed to determine the feasibility of connecting Himmatnagar to Mehsana by railway link. In this study, railway link (i) Himmatnagar to Vijapur - a new broad gauge railway track construction of 25km and (ii) From Vijapur to Ambaliyasan - conversion of metre gauge to broad gauge of 41km are proposed. At present passengers from Sabarkantha and Aravalli district are going in Kachchh region by GSRTC and Luxury buses in large number from Himmatnagar. Using data traffic volume count, road network inventory, IPT survey, origindestination survey data and Google maps.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Audio Visual Reconciliation Intellectual CAPTCHA as New Era of Turing Test 2021-12-02T03:29:54-05:00 Sakshi Pandey Manoj Kumar Vivek Kumar <p style="text-align: justify;">In this digital world; security is a significant concern towards access validation that can be computed through some kind of turing test i.e. CAPTCHA. The term CAPTCHA was introduced for classifying credibility of user whether the intervention has been initiated by human or bots. . CAPTCHA stands for “Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart”. It is a fortification tool that denies junk/bots entries in the form of challenging problems. CAPTCHA has been prefabricated in various forms such as alphanumeric distorted strings, 3D strings, picture identifications, gaming problems and many more. The recent approach is gaming CAPTCHA and most of the game may increases the server load towards the browser. The logic behind the gaming CAPTCHA is dealing with dragging &amp; dropping object to the target position, so these CAPTCHAs do not belong to the hard AI problems. The<br>objective of the paper is to provide better level of hard AI problem that can be solved within few seconds with fewer efforts that challenges bots to solve in a limited time. But proposed CAPTCHA is based on audio video reconciliation where user has to recognize the correct combination of appearance with its sounds. That is why it contains two level security premises, speech recognition with picture identification.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 OPTIMIZATION OF MACHINING PARAMETERS DURING CNC MILLING OF INCOLOY 800 2021-12-02T03:34:41-05:00 Balwant Singh , Dr. P.Sudhakar Rao <p style="text-align: justify;">Maintaining better surface quality generally includes additional production cost or loss of productivity. During the process high cutting frictional forces lead to rise in temperature at workpiece and tool interface which may affect the dimensional and surface quality of the product. Optimum machining parameters can reduce tool wear, to ensure better surface integrity and machining cost. In this paper, the machining parameters i.e. cutting speed (Vc), depth of cut (d) and feed rate (f) has been optimized for improved surface finish using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimization of the surface roughness (Ra) and tool wear (Tw) has been done simultaneously by multi response optimization technique and also a mathematical relation between response parameters and input process variables has been developed. The optimized process parameters obtained from machining through RSM were Vc is 2454.95 rpm, f is 437.05 mm/min and d is 0.20 mm, corresponding Ra and Tw were 0.55 µm, 143.84 µm respectively</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Application of a Mathematical Modelling Tool for the Evaluation of Hydrological Parameters using Conventional Survey and Drone Survey 2021-12-02T03:47:14-05:00 Abhishek Budhavant Priyanka Danane Yash Deshpande Shubham Patil Prof. Dr. Shantini Bokil , Mr. Kuldeep Malik Mrs. Kasturi Katte <p style="text-align: justify;">The survey work of flood affected area of river basin is significant factor in flood management. The flood management work is done by analysing water discharge and water profiles at different cross-sections of river basin. River bed plays crucial role in distribution of flood water and water velocity profile. Hence topographical detailed survey is very much essential for flood management works.<br>Traditionally topographical survey work is carried out manually by using total station to acquire detailed data on the actual spot by the people on the ground. On the other hand, in aerial surveying UAV borne mapping system is developed for survey purpose of river basin in which digital and infrared cameras are used along with GPS. This paper focuses on comparative study between conventional topographical survey and drone or aerial photographic survey by using the HECRAS software for achieving results. The comparison is done on the basis of flow rate, water depth and velocity across the flood plain of river. The evaluated parameters in the study provides a guideline for the decision making process for water resource management projects.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 POLLUTION LOAD INTO RIVER YAMUNA THROUGH BURIA NALA AT FARIDABAD DISTRICT OF HARYANA 2021-12-02T03:54:36-05:00 Raj Laxmi Sandeep Arya <p style="text-align: justify;">The present research study was carried out to examine the contribution of pollution load by Buria Nala itself into surface<br>water of river Yamuna in Faridabad district by studying organic parameters over two different seasons named premonsoon season and post-monsoon season for a period of one year May 2016 to April 2017. The results clearly showed a remarkable variation at all the four sites across both the seasons which indicated that water is poorly affected due to the whole time disposal of huge amounts of industrial waste discharged from many small, medium and large scales industries water through Buria Nala, directly into the river, without any treatment. Based on the observations and results, this study concluded that the river is extremely polluted in Pre-monsoon season followed by Post-monsoon season.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF COLD FORMED STEEL CHANNEL SECTIONS WITH AND WITHOUT STIFFENERS 2021-12-02T03:57:52-05:00 Ch. Teja kiran K. Rohini Devi <p style="text-align: justify;">The Light gauge cold-formed steel sections being used extensively in residential, industrial and commercial building as secondary load bearing members since last three decadez. In this context a study is being made to analyses C Sections with and without stiffeners to arrive at design strength criterion in compression. The direct strength method of design for cold formed steel sections has been validated over the years through research and the same has been incorporated in the standard codes of practice in the countries like USA and Australia. ABAQUS and CUFSM has been extensively used to perform Finite Element analysis and Finite Strip method of thin<br>walled cold formed steel sections and the results are compared to each other. The analysis is being done on CUFSM and ABAQUS. The design strength curves will be arrived at using direct strength method. This is because cold-formed steel sections have a very high strength to weight ratio compared with thicker hot-rolled steel sections, and their manufacturing process is simple and cost-effective. In this context, a study is being made to analyze C sections with and without stiffeners to arrive at design strength criterion in compression members. In this study, the behavior of C sections with and without stiffeners under the action of axial loads has been carried out with various thickness and depths. In ABAQUS, the loads are applied on both ends. The clamped end conditions are considered</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A REVIEW PAPER ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A VARIOUS ROBOTIC END EFFECTOR 2021-12-02T09:49:44-05:00 Mohd. Jawed Iqbal Dr. S. S. Dhami <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper presents a brief of the experimental work, analysis work to develop various types of robotic end effectors and manipulators in the field of robotics and automation. Researchers were also focused to develop a robotic end effector to collect the soil sample from the hazardous site and further went for investigation in laboratory. For carry out the end result at site or at territorial areas some researchers also worked and developed a station or platform which can easily mounted on vehicle. For the hazardous sites, launch vehicle and unmanned vehicle was also developed. Some researchers were also worked on to develop a combination of a sample collecting unit and a test unit for getting fast results. Further the analysis and the simulation work was also done through various software such as ANSYS, FEA tools etc. Research work was also carried to developed large workspace of robotic configuration for the efficient work. Various robotic configurations were also improved by the researcher. For the delicate and light duty work a new piezoelectric composite material was also proposed by researcher. In bio medical field robotic hand was developed for orthopaedic surgery of femur</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 REAL TIME FACE DETECTION AND PEOPLE COUNTING USING VIOLA-JONES 2021-12-02T09:56:17-05:00 Mr. Rishabh Pal, Mrs. Shalini Bhadola Mrs. Kirti Bhatia <p style="text-align: justify;">Image processing techniques like face detection play a significant role in counting the number of people present at any given location which is under surveillance of a camera or any face detection system. This data collected can be processed and analyzed to deduce important findings. Data Mining plays a major role in analysis of this data and production of important statistics. Based on these statistics important decisions are made. This paper proposes one such system that uses Viola Jones face detection algorithm to keep a count of number of visitors at railway station throughout the day and heuristic data mining technique to analyze this stored data and suggest the required action. Today, a great deal of research has been distributed keeping in mind the end goal to determine such issue which is check individuals utilizing camcorder. This is not a straightforward assignment; there are a few circumstances hard to settle even with today's PC speeds (the calculation needs to work progressively so it makes limits for the multifaceted nature of strategies for location and following). Possibly a standout amongst the most troublesome, is individuals impediments. At the point when individuals entering or leaving of the field of view in gathering, it is difficult to recognize every one of the people in this gathering.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 RESULT PAPER: DRIVE NOW TEXT LATER, DETECTION OF CAB DRIVER ACTIVITY WHILE DRIVING 2021-12-02T10:00:55-05:00 Swapnil Birdawade Rushikesh Kohinkar Pramod Shinalkar Rajesh Suryawanshi Dr. Deepak Gupta <p style="text-align: justify;">Now a day’s use of Mobile Phone is one of the top dangerous behaviour for drivers. There are so many systems and Android applications are Implement to detect such type of behaviour of driver. For identifying this type of behaviour detection our system to be practical, a key property is its capability to distinguish driver’s mobile phone from passengers’. In previous systems the problems generally rely on user’s manual input, or utilize specific localization devices to determine whether a mobile phone is at driver’s location. In this paper, we have proposed a new approach which is able to automatically detect use of Mobile Device without using any extra devices. Our idea is very simple: when a user is trying to composing messages, the sensors (i.e. gyroscopes, accelerometers, and GPS) of smart phone embedded for collecting the associated information such as touch strokes, holding orientation and vehicle speed. After that this information will be analysed to see whether there exist some specific Test and Driving patterns. We will get the results that our approach can achieve good detection accuracy with low false positive rate.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 STUDY ON FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONVENTIONAL & CORRUGATED FERROCEMENT PANELS USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF WIRE MESH 2021-12-02T10:06:30-05:00 Akshat Patel Jigar Zala <p style="text-align: justify;">An experimental investigation on ferrocement cast-in-situ panels are construct with Portland pozzolona cement(PPC) and manufactured sand of passing through 4.75mm sieve and cement and sand mix ratio as M15 grade propose respectively 1:2 and panels are in size of 900mmX300mmX50mm. In ferrocement panels have use different types of wire mesh like- Galvanize iron wire mesh, Bending wire mesh, Metallic wire mesh, Aluminium wire mesh. Panels as cast in double layer wire mesh. As the purpose of minimize the corrosion in wire mesh to increase the flexural strength of panels.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Recycling and reuse of reclaimed Portland cement concrete aggregate 2021-12-02T10:16:25-05:00 Ashis Kumart Rout Sipalin Nayak Rakesh Kumar Jena <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this research was to study the behaviour of RPCC aggregates in Portland cement concrete and embankment. For the first case, several batches of concrete were prepared with RPCC aggregate, natural aggregate, different water cement ratio (WCR) and different maximum size of the aggregate. Standard tests were performed on RPCC and natural aggregates, concrete made with recycled and natural aggregate, including specific gravity and absorption, slump and compression tests. For the second case, shear tests were performed on RPCC aggregate to obtain the failure envelope and the friction angle. RPCC material can develop a high friction angle at failure, making this material highly recommended for use in embankments. Moreover, RPCC aggregate can be mixed with a material of lower quality, making its use more economically attractive.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 DESIGN OF DOUBLE BASEMENT SHOPPING COMPLEX USING POST TENSIONED SLAB 2021-12-02T10:20:01-05:00 Mr.Subhendra Baliyarsingh Dr.Manoj Kumar Rath Er.Nagendra Kumar Parida <p style="text-align: justify;">Nowadays, design of modern an architectural building structure requires the use of slender and free from numerous supports slabs. The most suitable solution for above requirements is the post-tensioned slabs with unbounded tendons. Slabs prestressed by unbounded tendons are successfully used worldwide for several decades. During that time many recommendations dealing with the forming of geometry and prestressing, dimensioning and erection technology were issued. During the recent years prestressed slabs characterized by span and slenderness substantially exceeding recommended limitations were designed and erected with success in Poland. During the slabs erection and in two years of their using, the deflection of three oversized slabs was monitoring. In spite of designed the slabs significantly larger and slenderer than the recommended maximum value of span and span to depth ratio, the deflection of the slabs is definitely far from the limit value. The paper shows the design of the structure and detailing of the PT slab. The slab length is 17.5 m.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF FLOWING ARTESIAN WELLS DURING WINTER AND SUMMER SEASON 2021-12-02T10:23:57-05:00 Rachana Gupta Saurabh Sah <p style="text-align: justify;">The study was conducted with the aim to analyse the co-relation and multiple linear regression analysis of water quality of flowing artesian wells located in the vicinity of Pantnagar University campus in winter season and summer season. These samples were analysed for various parameters such as pH, electric conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid(TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium hardness (Ca2+), magnesium hardness (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), bi-carbonate (HCO3-), acidity, alkalinity, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, carbon di-oxide (CO2) and sulphate (SO4). In Statistical data analysis the r value between is EC-TDS, EC-Acidity, TH-Ca, TH-Mg and Alkalinity- HCO3, shows the significantly strong positive relationship at 0.01 level in during winter season and summer season the correlation analysis between EC- TDS, TH-Ca, TH- Mg, EC-alkalinity, TDS- alkalinity, EC-HCO3, TDS- HCO3, alkalinity-HCO3, EC- Cl, TDS-Cl, alkalinity-Cl-, HCO3--Cl-, acidity-fluoride and acidity-CO2 shows the significantly strong positive relationship at 0.01 level. The relationship developed between TDS and different values of pH, EC, Ca++, K+, acidity, chloride and sulphate which can be used to evaluate the ground water quality.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sustainable Utilization of Plastic Waste - An Overview 2021-12-02T10:27:16-05:00 Dharmendra K.Gandhi Saurabh V. Pande Atul M. Raghatate <p style="text-align: justify;">Global industrialization leads to generation of solid waste and scarcity of fuel due to consumption of natural resources. Solid waste management is one of the most challenging issue causing health and environmental threats globally. Tones of Plastic waste are predominant non biodegradable content of solid waste. Disposal of solid waste by conventional techniques such as sanitary land filling leads to drastic environmental degradation. Recycling of plastic waste is one of the sustainable solutions. The present paper is an effort to reflect plastic waste disposal by pyrolysis. Pyrolitic decomposition of plastic waste may lead to production of by-products such as crude oil and gas which can be utilized as an alternative source of energy resolving residential and industrial fuel shortage, minimization of environmental and health issues.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 USE OF WASTE MATERIAL TO ENHANCE ENGINEERING PROPERTY OF CONCRETE 2021-12-02T10:30:38-05:00 Anand Darji <p style="text-align: justify;">Concrete is widely use material in construction industry. Construction activities generates large amounts of waste materials. In addition, at the end of a building's life, it may be demolished or deconstructed and generates significant amounts of waste. Construction waste includes waste that is generated during construction activities and materials that are surplus to requirements. Increasingly, there are options available in terms of recycling and reusing materials, and reducing the amount of waste produced, but despite this, a large amount of construction waste is still disposed of in landfill. 32% of the waste comes from the construction and demolition of buildings and 13% of products delivered to construction sites are sent directly to landfill without having being used. To sustain the environment, it is crucial to find solutions to deal with waste, pollution, depletion and degradation resources. By using the waste material as a supplement in the concrete can increase the strength as well as durability. As these products are waste from the construction industry we can make the environment green and more sustainable.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Survey on Enhancing the Security of Secret Questions Based On Smartphone Sensor and App Data 2021-12-02T10:33:03-05:00 Shruti Reshmi Rajashekhar D. Salagar Shriharsha S. Veni <p style="text-align: justify;">A smartphone is a handheld Personal Computer. It has broad processing capacities, including rapid access to the Internet utilizing both Wi-Fi and portable. A mobile application is a PC program intended to keep running on a Smartphone, for example, a telephone/tablet or watch. Secondary authentication method provided by the many web app. i.e., secret questions, to reset the record secret key when a client's login fails. In this survey, introduce a SecretQuestion based Authentication system, called "Secret QA” that makes an arrangement secret inquiry on essential of individuals' smartphone utilization. The secret questions identified with movement sensors, calendar, application portion, and Part of heritage application use history (e.g., telephone calls) have the best memorability for clients and also have more robustness to assaults.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 REVIEW OF CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK FOR SOUND CLASSIFICATION 2021-12-02T10:36:17-05:00 Anam Bansal <p style="text-align: justify;">Audio event detection and audio event classification are emerging field. The detection and classification of audio and sounds are prominently accomplished using the machine learning models like Support Vector Machines, K- Nearest Neighbour, Artificial Neural Networks, etc. These models give considerable accuracy. But deep learning models have surpassed the machine learning models in detecting and classifying the audio events, sources of sound and audio scenes. Convolutional Neural Network(CNN) is the deep learning model that has been used extensively in the field of audio. It has already made astonishing achievements in the field of image classification and other computer vision applications. This paper introduces the usage of CNN in the field of audio classification, describes the CNN model, layers of CNN, feature extraction in CNN. Then, the use of CNN in the various areas related to sound are described.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 MAINTANING THE COMFORT TEMPERATURE OF ROOM– A REVIEW 2021-12-02T10:38:31-05:00 Hardeep Singh Sukhdeep S. Dhami <p style="text-align: justify;">The energy consumption and conservation is an increasing important factors for the residential or offices building. The use of thermal insulation effects on the thermal performance of external walls which increases the thermal efficiency. Thermal insulation is very useful way to reduce the energy consumption in both winter and summer cooling. Modification in building design is also very helpful for reducing energy consumption. The selection of suitable materials, its position and thickness an important role for proper indoor thermal comfort. In present days to achieve maximum benefit of thermal insulation new composite materials are used and their testing with room walls with finite element methods</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON EFFECTS OF WELDING PARAMETERS ON FRICTION STIR WELDING OF ALUMINUM ALLOY 2021-12-02T10:41:00-05:00 Dhruv patel Satish Shah H. G. Katariya <p style="text-align: justify;">Friction stir welding is solid state welding process which can be used to produce better welds between similar and dissimilar materials. Dissimilar welds which include welds between the different series of aluminum alloys, aluminum to magnesium alloys, steel and titanium has been successfully produced by friction stir welding. In this study alloy which is used for FSW is Al6082, joint by various welding parameters of friction stir welding. The present study includes the effect of various friction stir welding parameters on FSW and tensile strength and macro testing has been examined of welded joints.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON CONCRETE USING PVC WASTE AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF FINE AGGREGATE 2021-12-02T10:44:38-05:00 K. Liwin Balaji T.M. Kamalakannan B. Ilamparuthi N. Pugazharasan T. Sharmila <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper ambitions to investigate the clean and hardened fine aggregate concretes that are prepared with using recycled plastic waste sourced from scraped PVC waste to interchange river sand as fine aggregates. A number of laboratories prepared concrete mixes were established, where river sand was once partially replaced by PVC plastic waste granules in percentages of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% through volume. Two most important findings are recognized. The confident side indicates that the concrete prepared with a partial alternative through PVC was once lighter. Moreover, this study reveals that the compressive strength and Split tensile strength of the concretes were increased in mixing of PVC. The outcome gathered would kind a part of valuable know-how for recycling PVC Plastic waste in pleasant concrete mixes.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 WSN: Localization Concepts and Techniques 2021-12-02T10:48:39-05:00 Satveer Kaur Deepam Goyal <p style="text-align: justify;">A WSN contains numerous number of sensor nodes. These nodes are interrelated to make a network. The nodes in the WSN configure a network that route the data across the network to primary location wherever it is analysed and used for a number of objectives. In today’s era, WSNs are commonly used in a lot of application areas related to environment aspects and physical sensations such as medical, military, environmental and air pollution monitoring, traffic management, green house monitoring etc. There are number of applications where sensor networks require location awareness means nodes need to be localized, but it is very costly to mount a GPS receiver in a sensor node. The problem becomes huge if the network is very large. Hence, there should be some mechanism or scheme through which location of unknown sensor nodes can be known without the assistance of GPS or a few numbers of nodes having GPS known as localization. This paper presents localization concepts and techniques which are used to localize the sensor nodes.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 STABILIZATION OF BLACK COTTON SOIL USING SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH 2021-12-02T10:51:33-05:00 Prof, Ms R.V Badiger Abujar Rajput Mustafa Bagawan Mujammil Mulla Sabir Pendari <p style="text-align: justify;">Black cotton soil is the expansive soil because of Montmorillonite mineral present in it. Hence construction on this soil is critical. Usually black cotton soil found in Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andra Pradesh in our country. Soil will get effect because of existence of water so many of engineering properties of black cotton soil get affect from it. in our work we are enhancing engineering properties of black cotton soil such as permeability ,optimum moisture content ,maximum dry density ,unconfined compressive shear strength. By using baggase ash in varying percentage. The properties of black cotton soil can be modified by stabilizing the soil with the use of additives or by mechanical means. The scarcity and rising cost of traditional stabilizers like Lime and Cement has led to the research into clay soil stabilizing potential of bagasse ash that is cheaper, readily available and environmental friendly and has a serious disposal problem. aim is to economically improve the engineering properties of the black cotton soil such that the structure built on this soil can efficiently withstand applied loads.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE USED FOR HIGH CONSISTENCY 2021-12-02T10:55:18-05:00 Sushil Kumar Sahu Durga Charan Sahoo Manoj Kumar Rath <p style="text-align: justify;">It is well known that fire still remains as the most serious to most buildings or structures. High strength concrete is known as result of ongoing research to optimize concrete mixing and to make important contributions to enhanced quality and efficiency in the construction. This study has been carried out to understand more briefly the effect of high strength concrete. Changes temperature can produce stresses in concrete structures. The stresses are produced only when thermal expansion or contraction is restrained and this will affect the strength of concrete. When concrete is exposed to high temperature, the main problem which will encounter is spalling.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Development of Smart Health Monitoring System for patient using IoT Network 2021-12-02T11:23:42-05:00 CH Lakshmi Narayana K Pasipalan Rao UBA Sandhya Alekhya K Chaitanyasri K Satya Devi <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper includes the branch of Biomedical Engineering. The proposed system is designed to enhance speedy communication between the patients and doctor using an Internet of things (IOT). The most of human beings are losing their lives for not getting proper treatment in the right situations. Statistics reveal that in India for every minute four people are losing his/her life due heart attacks mainly. In view this, we described a real time patient monitoring system using IOT for expanding the health monitoring over wide areas such as town, villages and hilly terrains. During the travelling period patient’s health can become worse or loss of life can occur. This paper aims at monitoring the patient’s health conditions continuously using IOT. The parameters like the body temperature, heart beat in the body are to be monitored continuously using sensors. The microcontroller performs the predefined task of displaying the corresponding data on the LCD. By monitoring the LCD and the doctor can take the immediate action if necessary. Using this technology doctor can monitor and give suggestions for more number of people without physical presence. The projected technique was mainly designed for rural areas where the infrastructure services such as medical equipment, transportation are available.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 DAMPING ANALYSIS OF PATCHED LAYERED SORBOTHANE 2021-12-02T11:31:00-05:00 Pankaj R. Beldar Chetan D. Valunj <p style="text-align: justify;">Sound and vibration damping is the key aspect in the most of the structures. The viscoelasticity property can be used to reduce vibrations. Many polymers are used as a viscoelastic damper in Constrained layer damping(CLD) and Free layer damping. Sorbothane is basically, visco-elastic in the form of polymer. Visco-elastic property is related to the material exhibits properties of both liquids (viscous) and solids (elastic). The polymer Sorbothane is a thermoset by nature, polyether-based, polyurethane material. Sorbothane have shock absorption capacity and good memory, vibration damping characteristics and vibration isolation. In addition to this, Sorbothan polymer is a excellent acoustic damper and absorber. Damping loss factor is calculated for different Patches on cantilever beam with modal analysis on NI LabView and ANSYS.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EXPRIMENTAL STUDY ON INFLUNCE AND PERFORMANCE OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE USING TITANIUM DIOXIDE 2021-12-02T11:30:04-05:00 Rishabh Shah Jigar Zala <p style="text-align: justify;">The objective of pervious concrete is measure the performance due to the clogging to study and experiment the permeability, void ratio and durability of the pervious concrete using the Titanium Dioxide. The study carried out of mix proportion will be use (1:6) and to reduce the clogging effect of pervious concrete using the Titanium Dioxide. For the mix proportion and the different size of aggregate use to prepare the cube for the check durability, and permeability effect using different proportion of Titanium Dioxide.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Performance Analysis of MMC Based Static Compensator with Equivalent Model 2021-12-02T11:34:28-05:00 Shubham Patel Mukesh Bhesaniya <p style="text-align: justify;">In Continuous development of power electronics converters and hence the control and modeling methods for the converters has been a very active and interesting research topic. Comparing with the traditional two level voltage source converter configurations, the modular multilevel converter is being considered as the preferred VSC technology used in the application of the high power. To reduce the total harmonic distortion, number of modules in modular multilevel converters is increased. Hence, the performance analysis of the modular multilevel converter based system become time consuming on any simulation platform. In this paper the performance analysis of MMC based static compensator with mathematical model and dq-control is presented with reduced simulation time using the simulation on the PSCAD software.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CONVENTIONAL RETAINING WALL AND MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH WALL USING PLAXIS 2D 2021-12-02T11:37:26-05:00 Naved Qureshi Arpita Patel Bhoomi Kamdar <p style="text-align: justify;">Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) wall system is retention system used for highway design. In conventional system, cast in place concrete structure is used that cannot accommodate significant differential settlement especially with poor sub-grade condition. MSE wall systems are economical earth retaining structure which can tolerate more settlement over traditional retaining wall systems. The comparative study between MSE wall and conventional retaining wall is done using geotechnical software ‘PLAXIS 2D’. The simulation models of conventional and MSE retaining walls subjected to conditions of no surcharge as well as variable surcharge both in at rest and active state are created and analyzed using Plaxis 2D software. The comparative study of models of both types is done by creating and studying total stress, effective stress, deformed shape, variation in stress at different point, shear force and bending moment. The performance of conventional and MSE wall is evaluated to identify their suitability for the purpose of retaining soil in location having differential settlement. The results obtained from simulation are also supported with manual calculation for the above said conditions. The aim of the study is to predict the behavior of both the type of retaining walls under different loading condition which will further help to choose the appropriate type of wall among the above two walls.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 COMPARISON OF NON-EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT AND EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT FRAMED STRUCTURES 2021-12-02T11:39:17-05:00 R. Ravali Reddy K. Navya sree Mohd Muneeruddin Khan <p style="text-align: justify;">framed structures are the structures having the combination of beam, column, slab and footings to resist the lateral and gravity loads. These structures are usually used to overcome the large moments developing due to the applied loading. In this study a framed structure is studied for two conditions of loadings 1) dead load and live load &amp; 2) dead load, live load and earthquake loads. The results of selected parameters were compared.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IMPROVEMENT OF EFFICIENCY AND COOLING EFFECT OF PELTIER REFRIGERATOR 2021-12-02T11:41:47-05:00 Dhruvil patel Kartik patel Bhavin patel Rupanshu parmar Mayur kachhiya <p style="text-align: justify;">The impact of on-going progress in science and technology has created a variety of system that can be used in thermoelectric module for power generation of energy which we further use for cooling effect. The most important utilization of this portable refrigerator is for the preservation of insulin in extreme condition a thermoelectric module (TMC) compressor so that it become portable, as it is based on the principles of peltier effect. The use of peltier effect is to create heating side and a cooling side and also to maintain effectiveness Thermoelectric refrigerator is a solidstate heat pump which uses the components are available commercially. The thermoelectric refrigerator does not produce chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). It is pollutant free-contains no liquids &amp; gases, portable, compact, creates no vibration or noise because of the different the mechanics of the system. It is a prototype and its semiconductor materials, by peltier effect to provide instantaneous cooling. It has the advantage of having no moving parts and thus maintenance free</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT: A REVIEW 2021-12-02T11:43:29-05:00 Ashish Shaji Nishant Kumar <p style="text-align: justify;">Worldwide construction industry faces challenges regarding to the problems associated with productivity and the problems are usually linked with performance of the labour, productivity assists the construction industries to be competitive, to achieve the objectives and to meet the stakeholder’s expectation. Productivity is a very important element in the estimation process in construction management. The objective of this research is to identify and analyze the factor which affect labor productivity in construction projects and rank the factors according to the importance of their impact on their effect at site and measuring the factors which affect the productivity. The result of this paper shows various factors which affect the productivity of labors and caused delay in completion of projects.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sentiment Analysis of Tweets for Indian Election Using Random Forest Classifier 2021-12-02T11:46:48-05:00 Kiran Sangada Jitendrakumar Dhobi <p style="text-align: justify;">Now a day, a huge number of user opinions are posted on every social media by thousands of users for any events, topic, current news, etc. Twitter is one of the biggest social media where people can post their tweets, share, and discuss it. Sentiment analysis is a study of people’s feeling, reviews represented in textual form. The election is one of the most popular topic on social media. User’s feeling or review on a related election is improving the national democratic process of elections. The research work proposed machine learning-based classifier for classifying the Indian election-related tweets (Positive or Negative). We proposed hyperparameter tuned random forest classification which used the efficient feature to classify Indian election-related tweets. In this work, we compared the result with other different technique result in the comparison random forest technique gives the more accurate result. Our research aim is analysed user sentiments about the Indian election using random forest classifier.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Design of Compact Low Power Autonomous Vehicle for Multi-Purpose using NI my RIO 2021-12-02T11:45:46-05:00 B V N R. Siva Kumar G. Krishna Kaladhar N. Naveen Kumar C. Sai Pavan R. Sai Surya <p style="text-align: justify;">Autonomous vehicle is a vital assistive device for many industrial purposes and individuals. Manual vehicles deliver a relatively low cost solution to the mobility needs of such individuals. However, these vehicles have a gross loss of mechanical efficiency, and thus the risk of user fatigue and upper limb injury is increased. Electricpowered vehicles reduce the risk of injury and provide a more convenient means of transportation. However, they are of large physical size and quite expensive. Accordingly, the present study utilizes a quality function deployment method to develop a vehicle with a user-selectable manual/electric mode. The basis of developing these devices includes low cost, low power and user friendly operation. Moreover, the autonomous vehicles have a modular design and can be disassembled or can be folded for ease of transportation or storage. Overall, the present results suggest that the proposed autonomous vehicle provides an effective and convenient means of meeting the mobility needs of individuals with mobility difficulties. This whole process has been developed using NI myRIO.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 STUDY OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN SOIL SURROUNDING PIRANA LANDFILL SITE BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER 2021-12-02T11:49:46-05:00 Hardi Joshi Ravirajsinh Jadeja Beena Zala Neelam Belani Akshay Chauhan <p style="text-align: justify;">Accumulation of Heavy Metals in the soil leads to contamination of soil; which is one of the prevailing issues. Heavy metals released in the environment are majorly infiltrated into soils and most metals do not undergo chemical degradation, thus their concentrations in soils persevere for a long period. The presence of Heavy metals not only create adverse effects on ecosystem but also affects the engineering properties of soil. Hence there lies the importance of determining Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil. In the present study Concentration of Lead, Copper and Zinc were determined in soil samples collected surrounding the Pirana Landfill site. The soil samples were collected from the 8 co-ordinates and analysed with the help of AAS. Some Soil Samples showed considerably high amount of heavy metals while for some soil samples, the concentration of heavy metals was appeared to be within permissible limits.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Interface Shear of Fly ash and GGBS Based Geopolymer Concrete 2021-12-02T11:50:46-05:00 B.Laxman Raju L.Sudheer Reddy Sumanth Kumar B <p style="text-align: justify;">This article presents an experimental study conducted to find the shear strength of geopolymer concrete. In addition, it was proposed to check the suitability existing equations like Birkeland and Birkeland, Mattock and Design code ACI 318, which are developed for ordinary Portland cement concrete for estimating the shear capacity of geopolymer concrete. Push off Samples were used to study the shear strength at the interface. Both reinforced concrete and non-reinforced concrete samples were used for investigation. It was observed that the shear strength of geopolymer concrete is superior to OPC concrete. The existence of reinforcement transversely shear plane produced a rise of about 29% of the shear resistance against slip.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Parametric Study on Behaviour of Microwave Tower with Different Bracing Patterns under Lateral Loads 2021-12-02T11:54:36-05:00 Prinsa Gandhi Abbas R. Jamani <p style="text-align: justify;">This study deals with the behaviour of Microwave towers under lateral loads. Different bracing systems are adopted and analyzed to study lateral displacement, natural mode of frequency, wind force, axial force, weight of structure, utilization ratio and economical aspect. To upgrade system of Microwave towers using a diaphragm bracing that could improve the performance of towers. Analytical models have been generated in STAAD Pro and Comparison of results will be done to suggest the most suitable lateral load resisting system. The analysis for the lattice tower will be based on provisions of IS 800-2007, IS 875(part-III) and IS 802.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 TO STUDY OF REPAIR AND REHABILITATION OF R.C STRUCUTURES 2021-12-02T11:54:37-05:00 Rushabh Bamaniya Ayush Mavi Dipak Modhwadia Jeet Patel Prof. Anand K. Darji <p style="text-align: justify;">in the present time, usage of concrete as a main material for construction has been increased to many folds. Due to applied stresses and temperature variation, concrete may undergo deformations which affect the longterm strength and durability of concrete. In order to bring back the structural functionality and aesthetics repair of structures is essential. This dissertation is undertaken to study various types of crack formation in concrete structures and the materials and techniques used for repair of concrete structures.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Road Crash Investigation and Analysis of Hilly Road Section near Saputara on NH 360 2021-12-02T11:57:58-05:00 Mayur R. Bhoya Dr. P. M. Shah Dr. H. R. Varia <p style="text-align: justify;">Road traffic accident the leading cause of death by injury and the tenth-leading cause of all deaths globally-now make up as surprisingly significant portion of the worldwide burden of ill-health. According to the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, 1, 50,785 people were killed and another 4,94,624 were injured in 4,64,910 road crashes in India in 2017. The number of road crash deaths having increased by 31% from 2007 to 2017 and that of fatal road crashes have increased by 25.6% in the same period. India ranks 1st in road crash fatality in the world. Many heavy trucks, buses, cars, two wheelers are plying between Surat and Nasik. Both cities are important cities and are connected with National Highway 360. This study focuses on the road stretch between Chikhli to Saputara road (NH360) covering 103km distance. The 60 km of study stretch is passing through hilly terrain. Saputara is the only hill station of Gujarat in dang district. The path is selected Chikhli to Saputara as a study area. The length of the study area is 104 km so stretch has divided into four sections last two sections is hilly region so this stretch has been selected for this paper. The Total of this stretch 234 road crashes recorded in last 6 years, 2013-2018. The collected data was collected from police station. In section-3 identified Top Weightage value is 95.4 and traffic volume is high during the evening time. In section-4top weightage value is 140.4 and traffic volume is also high during the evening time.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INVESTIGATION OF CONCRETE FILLED STEEL TUBE SECTION BY ANALYTICAL METHOD 2021-12-02T12:01:54-05:00 Gawande Akshay Vinayak Tak Shilpa P <p style="text-align: justify;">Concrete filled steel tube (CFST) have been used in the practice of civil engineering under the pile, columns and fill the docks. As Compare to conventional steel and reinforced concrete components, there are several advantages of CFST. This article presents an analytical modelling for concrete filled steel (CFST) tube section under concentric axial compression. Curly, the main objective of this study to evaluate the effect on buckle load for various geometric of the CFST model condition Finite element model is validated by comparing its results with those included in the experimental study of the researcher. Three Dimensions Non-Linear finite element analysis of the axial compression process is performed using commercial software ABAQUS v6.14. The Results of various models are compared.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Use of Plastic Waste in Civil Construction 2021-12-02T12:07:43-05:00 Pranita Yaldarkar Sandesh Dalvi Pawan khairkar Kanchan Chaudhari <p style="text-align: justify;">The usage of waste plastic in concrete paver block is partial solution to the environmental and ecological problems associated with it. The aim of this research is to study the uses of plastic waste as a binding material in pave block casting. In this project, the difference mix proportion of milk packet waste were used to replace cement in paver block to obtain desired result. In 21th century over 300 million tons of plastic produced worldwide each year. Hence this type of study is required to reduce the plastic waste in useful way. Another aim is achieved by this research to reduce the cost of paver block when compare that of concrete paver block. For the test, paver block are prepared and their compressive strength is tested.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EFFECT AND OPTIMIZATION OF PLASTIC WASTE FOR ENHANCING MECHANICAL PARAMETERS OF CONCRETE 2021-12-02T12:10:49-05:00 Rahul Polekar Harikrishna Shapariya Vijay Vankar Saurabh Goplani Prof. Anand Darji <p style="text-align: justify;">It is aimed to research the effects of plastic waste on the mechanical and durability parameter of concrete. Plastic was used as a part of the filling materials to obtain polymer concrete in this study. Filling material ratio has been determined as 5–95%, 10–90%, 15–85% and 20–80%, plastic/filling material ratio has been decided to be 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. 28-Day of axial compressive, flexural and splitting tensile strength values of the test samples will be evaluated.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 An overview of Blockchain Technology and utilization of blockchain for transformation in India 2021-12-02T12:13:35-05:00 Neha Shah <p style="text-align: justify;">blockchain is the immutable blocks that are distributed over a network, which allows a transaction to take place in a decentralized manner. These distributed ledgers are secured with hash and consensus algorithm. Nowadays blockchains are widely used for different applications and use of blockchain is also increasing in numerous fields like bank, IOT, energy, etc. This paper provides a broad overview of blockchain technology, the architecture of blockchain, consensus algorithm. Moreover, applications of blockchain in different fields and future use of blockchain.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A REVIEW ON PREDICTION OF DIABETES USING VARIOUS TECHNIQUES IN HEALTHCARE 2021-12-02T12:15:46-05:00 Miss Vaishali G. Mohature <p style="text-align: justify;">Now a days, there are many applications are used for searching results on web. In this system we predicting diabetes by applying data mining technique. Data mining is the process of discovering interesting pattern and large amount of data. The main aim of this project is to build a basic decision support system which can determine and exact previously unseen patterns, relation and concepts related with multiple disease data mining is an engineering study of extracting previously undiscovered patterns from a selected set of data. Data set used is Pima Indian diabetes dataset, which collects the information of person with and without diabetes. Data mining is one of the fastest growing field in the health care industries. Using data mining method to aid people to predict diabetes disease has gain major popularity.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FACE EXPRESSION DETECTION USING OPENCV 2021-12-02T12:15:20-05:00 A. Sravya M. Bhavana Dr. V. Sireesha <p style="text-align: justify;">Computer vision is a field which teaches computers to gather information they see. It is a way computers learn from their environment and meet our demands. In the past few years face recognition has become popular and is being extensively used in various computer vision fields. This has motivated researches and neuroscientists to dig more on expression detection since it has many applications inautomatic access control system. In this work, we detect user’s emotions using his facial expressions. The expressions are predicted from the pre-existing image available in the memory and also real time. In order to build a face expression detection system, we scan the training dataset and compare it with the test data which helps the classifier to predict the expression. This implementation is done using Haar-cascade algorithm in order to detect the face. Due to its efficiency, Haar-like rectangle features play an important role in face detection. Also, an algorithm known as fisher face is used to detect the expression from the given dataset loaded by the user. These algorithms are provided by OpenCV which is an open source computer vision library with various kinds of algorithms built in. It is applicable in various computer vision projects. This work has been implemented using Python Idle 2.7, Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) and NumPy.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PERISTALTIC TRANSPORT OF A CONDUCTING FLUID IN A VERTICAL ASYMMETRIC CHANNEL 2021-12-02T12:18:20-05:00 Dr. S. Babar Ali Mohiddin <p style="text-align: justify;">Mostly peristaltic study deals with flow in symmetric channels. But there are some physiological systems like uterus where asymmetry plays an important role in transporting Uterine(Etyan and Elad 1999). Previous researchers viz., Jaffrin and Shapiro(1971), Rees(1988), Lagrangian approach, Trapping and reflux, Poiseuille flow, Herschel Bulkley fluid model,<br>Bingham fluids, Intra- uterine fluid motion, Newtonian fluid, axisymmetric tubes.Srivastava and Srivastava(1995) have studied characteristics like trapping and reflux, channel with flexible porous walls and effects of Poiseuille flow respectively. Later studies by Vajravelu et al. (2005a, 2005b) of bio fluid as Herschel Bulkley fluid paves the way to Mishra and Ramachandra rao(2003) to apply asymmetric channel flow to infra-uterine fluid motion in a non- pregnant uterus. The essence of this paper is about the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a vertical asymmetric channel under long wavelength and low Reynolds number. Further in this paper the concentration is upon transport of a conducting viscous fluid with flexible walls with asymmetry being generated by propagation of waves with same speed but with different amplitudes and phases as depicted in the physical models through graphs.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 WATER RESOURCES OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH AND ITS IMPACT: A CASE STUDY 2021-12-02T12:18:04-05:00 Toko Rebia Tai Taju Toko Noka Debia Tada Rohit Sahu <p style="text-align: justify;">The water resources in Arunachal Pradesh are in abundance, many rivers coming from china which is located in the upstream, are flowing in the state. The land of rising sun situated in the eastern Himalayan region now days faces severe damages of their water resources due to many reasons. This study is about the various factors which are responsible for the impact of the water resources in the state. The study shows us that, the construction of huge dams by china on the upstream is majorly a factor and is responsible for deplenishen the quality of water in the rivers like Siang. The study also tells us that the long term effects of the construction of dams or diverting the river is very hazardous as the rivers not only dried, but ecological, and geographical problems like Glaciers present in the state are affected by this and land which is very rich in water resources on both ground water and surface water will deplete. The research paper shows the various water resources of the state and its present status, the paper also tries to evaluate the impact of the water bodies on the State and its stake holders.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bamboo: Cost Effective and Sustainable Building Material 2021-12-02T12:21:36-05:00 Dnyaneshwar Shinde Durgesh Nagpure Vinita jawake Aniket shinde Rajat kalamkar <p style="text-align: justify;">Bamboo is green construction material which is easily available, light in weight. Traditional building materials like cement and steel leads to continuous CO2 emission which forced engineers to think for other greener construction material. Most of the population is unable to have their own houses due to increasing housing cost. Bamboo possesses satisfactory characteristic properties as sustainable material compared to steel and concrete. Flexibility property of bamboo makes it earthquake resistant. This paper shows suitability of bamboo as cost effective, sustainable green building material.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 OPTIMIZATION OF CUTTING TEMPERATURE AND MRR DURING CNC MILLING OF INCOLOY 800 USING DOE TECHNIQUE 2021-12-02T12:25:26-05:00 Balwant Singh Dr. P.Sudhakar Rao <p style="text-align: justify;">The process high cutting frictional forces lead to rise in temperature at workpiece and tool interface which may affect the dimensional and surface quality of the product. Optimum machining parameters can reduce tool workpiece interference temperature and maximise material removal rate (MRR) at minimum machining cost. In this paper, the machining parameters i.e. cutting speed (Vc), depth of cut (d) and feed rate (f) has been optimized to reduce cutting temperature (T) and maximise MRR using Design of experiments (DOE). The optimization of the cutting temperature and MRR has been done simultaneously by multi response optimization technique and also a mathematical relation between response parameters and input process variables has been developed. The optimized process parameters obtained from machining through RSM were Vc is 2454.95 rpm, f is 437.05 mm/min and d is 0.20mm, corresponding T and MRR were 126.04 ˚C and 1.40 cm3/min respectively.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A STUDY ON DESIGN ASPECTS OF REINFORCED EARTH WALL 2021-12-02T12:29:51-05:00 Nida Nasir S.N. Sachdeva <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper deals with the design of Reinforced Earth wall with Geogrid as reinforcing material at five different heights. The design of reinforced earth wall is based on lateral earth pressure approach. In this design active earth pressure has been calculated and the checks for internal and external stability, overturning, sliding, pullout, shear and connection strength also has been done. The height of the wall is taken up to maximum 10m. The comparison is done between the designs and the impact of change of height. The calculation for the design is done on Microsoft Excel to bring out the better alternative among them. The paper also carries out the importance of Reinforced Earth Wall in the transformation of modern construction.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and GIS in the Evaluation of Groundwater Recharge Potential of Rajkot District, Gujarat, India 2021-12-02T12:29:21-05:00 Harsh H. Maniar Neelkanth J. Bhatt Indra Prakash Khalid Mahmood <p style="text-align: justify;">Identification and mapping of groundwater recharge potential zones is important step to recharge the aquifer at appropriate locations for maintaining groundwater resource balance with consumption and exploitation. Rajkot district of Gujarat which is fast developing has been selected as study area considering present and future needs of ground water. In this area ground water occurs in weathered basalt and in the area dissected by lineaments (dykes, joints and shears). In the present study the Saaty’s Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is a widely used MultiCriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) technique has been used to assess the groundwater potential zones. Weights to individual parameters were assigned based on AHP method and rates based on the importance of sub-category parameters in the recharge of ground water. Overlay analysis was done to integrate various thematic layers in GIS environment for the development of ground water recharge potential map. Based on this methodology, groundwater recharge potential zones map was classified into three main categories Major part of the area is having medium (46%) to high (36%) recharge potential. This study will help to managers to properly plan to recharge more potential area on priority basis for proper development of ground water resources of the district.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE USING GGBFS AND MARBLE POWDER 2021-12-02T12:32:43-05:00 Istehak M. Vadaviya Prof. Dipak K. Jivani <p style="text-align: justify;">Geopolymer concrete is an innovative construction material which has been made by the chemical action of inorganic molecules. It is commonly used construction material for replacement of the plain cement concrete. Geopolymer concrete are made with 0% amount of ordinary portland cement. In this experimental study are done for checking the mechanical strength properties of geopolymer concrete using GGBFS with different % replacement of Fly Ash (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%) and Marble Powder with different % replacement of Fine Aggregate (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%) on geopolymer concrete. In this project, the mix design is carried out for 12M concentration of sodium hydroxide. Alkaline activator solution ratio of 2.5 and alkaline liquid to fly ash ratio 0.56 is selected and conduct constant for this investigation. The specimen of size 150x150x150mm cubes, 150x300mm cylinders and 500x100x100mm beam were casted and the specimens of geo-polymer concrete are cured at ambient temperature for 3day 7days and 28days. The experiment are to be carried for the mechanical strength like a compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength test on the concrete specimens and the test results are tabulated.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EFFECT OF GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG ON STABILIZED EMBANKMENT SOILS UNDER TRIAXIAL LOADING 2021-12-02T12:34:27-05:00 Sanjeeva Raju Badabhagni Hemanth Kumar Karaka Sanjay Farooq SPGC <p style="text-align: justify;">Industrial waste materials like Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), Granulated Blast Furnace Slag(GBFS), which are by products of Iron and steel industry are increased day to day and have similar properties as that of cement. So utilizing these by-products for stabilization benefits both environmental and economic aspects. The main objective of the present study is to Utilization of GGBS for improving various engineering properties of the soil as an alternative to lime or cement. In this study, usage of GGBS with different proportions in sub grade was analysed under static and dynamic loads. Soil sample was collected from pond in NIT Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India. The Index and Engineering properties (Standard proctor compaction, Unconfined compression test, California bearing ratio test) of soil with and without GGBS was determined for different combinations of GGBS with soil and optimized at 16% based on strength performance tests. It is observed that the improved soil strength depends on the amount of GGBS. The work is further extended to know the variation in strength of soil with and without GGBS under dynamic loads by conducting cyclic triaxial tests. Dynamic properties of soil (i.e., Shear modulus and damping ratio) are found out using strain controlled unconfined cyclic triaxial tests carried out as per ASTM D3999 and results are presented accordingly. The effect of GGBS inclusion is evaluated as a function of shearing-strain amplitude, confining stress, cycle number and GGBS content. It was found that the effect of GGBS content is significant on both shear modulus and damping ratio particularly at high shear strain amplitude. Thus effect of fibres in the improvement of dynamic properties of pond sand is investigated and feasibility of GGBS for ground improvement is explored.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 CASE STUDY ON BAMBOO HOUSE 2021-12-02T12:35:45-05:00 Dnyaneshwar Shinde Mayuri Waghmare Ujwal Bagul Shriniwas Warkhandakar Vinita Jawake <p style="text-align: justify;">Bamboo is the material with low cost and CO2 absorber. Bamboo is such a non -conventional material which can be use as replacement for concrete and steel in civil construction .The use of bamboo as construction material for house will give as affordable rates of houses. Use bamboo as alternative for concrete and steel leads to reduce down the CO2 emission by tremendous amount. Different tests are performed on bamboo to check whether it will give satisfactory performance or not. The result shows that bamboo gives satisfactory tensile strength compare with steel and better compression than concrete. This paper discuss about a case study of house constructed using bamboo. Code of practice used for bamboo are IS 9096:2006 for preservation of bamboo, IS 6874:2008 for method of tests for bamboo, IS 15912:2012 for structural design using bamboo.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 REVIEW BASED MODELLING OF FRAME-WALL SYSTEM UNDER SEISMIC CONDITION 2021-12-02T12:39:53-05:00 Mohini Nayak Harsh Chauhan Vijay Kumar Baradiya <p style="text-align: justify;">This study is based on high rise and medium rise RC shear wall-framed structures and squat wall system. The squat wall is design by different aspect ratios. Shear wall-frame system are becoming most popular in large populated cities area in India. It is necessary to analysis of building and study the all parameters of shear wall those are effected the lateral and gravity loads, Wall moment and the stresses on the shear wall. A 3D structure reinforced concrete shear wall-frame dual building systems is designed According to Indian standard codes and analysed. For Proper design steps and analysis of squat shear wall building, different methods used to model and get results which are important to get realistic results. Finite Element analysis study is also done with all models to find and compare<br>best modelling to model and design shear wall structure elements with easiest way. Also, Gravity and Earthquake loading apply to find the behaviour of components for different aspect ratios.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CONCRETE MANUFACTURED BY REPLACING NATURAL AGGREGATES WITH RECYCLED CRUSHED AGGREGATES 2021-12-02T12:38:52-05:00 Sushil S. Thorat Aakash P. Patil Dr. S. R. Bhagat <p style="text-align: justify;">The construction industry is becoming increasingly dependent on the natural resources. Amongst all the materials, concrete has a significant adverse impact on environment. Most of the concrete waste generated is dumped onto marshy areas, along water bodies or onto landfills. Looking at the sustainability issues, recycling of concrete has become the need of the hour. Current research trends are focusing on making concrete “greener”. Efforts are made to make concrete greener by replacing its traditional ingredients with environment friendly, cost effective and readily available materials. Among all the alternatives available, the use of recycled concrete aggregate as a replacement of natural aggregate is very promising. This paper presents a study of concrete made from recycled concrete aggregate. Various tests were carried out as per Indian Standards to analyse the performance of M20 grade of concrete made by replacing natural aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate. Also a comparative study of various parameters of concrete manufactured with natural and recycled aggregates has been carried out and presented.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ENRESDOWEDNESS OF TYPE – I UNICYCLIC GRAPHS 2021-12-02T12:43:09-05:00 Dr. P. Sumathi R. Esther Felicia <p style="text-align: justify;">Let G = (V, E) be a non empty, finite, simple graph. A dominating set of a graph G containing a minimum dominating set of G is called a - endowed dominating set of G. If that set is of cardinality k then it is called a k – endowed dominating set. k - enresdowed graph is one in which every restrained dominating set of cardinality k contains a minimum restrained dominating set. A unicyclic graph is a graph consisting of a single cycle. We consider a unicyclic graph of the type , where a set of all vertices of any cycle is attached by a path , t 2 . In this paper, the enresdowedness property for the unicyclic graphs with exactly one path attached to set of all the vertices of any cycle is found.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 STUDY OF PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF SAND WITH CERAMIC WASTE IN CONCRETE 2021-12-02T12:43:22-05:00 Saloni Sawant Harshal Rathod Kadambari Vitkar Dr. S. R. Bhagat <p style="text-align: justify;">The industrial waste contains many inorganic and toxic substances beyond the acceptable limit which cause an impact on the environment. In ceramic industries about 15%-30% production goes as waste while manufacturing the products. These wastes are dumped at open places which results in environment pollution. Taking this into consideration the reuse of this waste has become the need of hour. Hence the utilization of ceramic waste as a partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete production has been investigated. The ceramic waste which was obtained from manufacturing industry, and construction and demolition sites was collected and crushed into small pieces passing through IS 4.75 mm sieve. The partial replacement of the fine aggregate with ceramic tiles waste<br>powder is done in an incremental order at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% in producing M20 grade of concrete. This paper deals with the experimental study of the compressive strength property of M20 grade concrete after the partial replacement of sand by ceramic waste. Various tests were carried out as per IS standards to analyse the performance of M20 grade concrete made by partial replacement of sand by ceramic waste. A cost comparison between concrete produced from natural sand and sand replaced with ceramic waste has been carried out.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparative Analysis of Low Power MUX and DEMUX at nano scaled CMOS 2021-12-02T12:49:03-05:00 Alok Kumar Ashwani Kumar <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper realize low power 2:1 MUX and 1:2 MUX designs using a static CMOS logic and CMOS based DEMUX. Multiplexer is a unidirectional device utilized in any application in which information must be changed from different sources to a destination. In order to suppress the degradation of signals and to increase the operation speed, we designed interconnection for the circuit; the implementation is done in VLSI technology as it has features like small size, low cost, high operating speed and low power. The circuit shows rise and fall times of about 1ns and consumes low power according to the design and number of transistor used in the circuits. The static CMOS 2:1 MUX and CMOS based 1:2 DEMUX are the most efficient design because the average power consumption is low and reduced leakage current. The designed circuits are realized in a standard 90nm process technology and uses 0.7V supply voltage. This circuit is designed and estimated results in Cadence 90nm technology.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Wireless Monitoring & Controlling of Chemical Mixing Plant using PLC & SCADA 2021-12-02T12:50:11-05:00 Nandish Bhatt Yuvrajsinh. Rathod Jay. Kapadia Charandasi. Parmar Anuj. Patel <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this Wireless Monitoring &amp; Controlling of Chemical Mixing Plant using PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) &amp; SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) project is to integrate a PLC with the SCADA to control a chemical mixing plant by wireless communication. The machine uses various normally open and normally closed contacts, to mix and heat/cool up to three different liquids. The PLC is used to control the various AC and DC inputs and outputs of the plant to achieve the desired preset conditions of the chemical process. The inputs of the plant are used to collect the data from a flow meter and temperature sensors. The SCADA allows the operator to employ additional functions and the integrated PLC provides a variable control for a pressure transducer, heater and mixer.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IMPROVEMENT OF POROUS CONCRETE USING FIBERS 2021-12-02T12:51:42-05:00 Pawan Patidar Dr. Sunil Sugandhi Prof. Vinay Deulkar <p style="text-align: justify;">Pervious concrete is a different type of concrete with highly porous structure used for concrete flatwork applications that allow water from precipitation and other sources to pass directly through , this reducing the runoff from a site and allowing to recharge ground water . This porosity is attained by a highly interconnected void content. In pervious concrete, the amount of fine aggregate is little or no fine aggregate such as sand, because of that it is referred as “No fine or less fine concrete”. The use of pervious concrete is significantly increasing due to reduction of road runoff and absorption of noise. This concrete is being used as paving material in the United States for the construction of parking lots, sidewalks and secondary roads. The production of better quality pervious concrete is necessary to meet specification requirements for the construction of durable pervious concrete pavements. Till now many researchers have used different materials in the pervious concrete like flyash, rice husk, geogrids etc. Fibers can also be used to strengthen the pervious concrete, so it can easily be used for higher loads.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EFFECTS OF GEOMETRICAL CHANGE IN CYCLONE VORTEX FINDER ON PRESSURE DROP AND COLLECTION EFFICIENCY 2021-12-02T12:55:28-05:00 Tanuj Sanjot <p style="text-align: justify;">Enhancement of separation efficiency is important for cyclone separators to reduce any extra purification process required at the outlet. Therefore, the present research was performed to enhance the performance of cyclone separators with modified cone shaped vortex finder. In this study, a CFD is used to predict and evaluate the effects of vortex finder shape and length on cyclones collection efficiency and pressure drop and results were validate with experimentation. Modelling done in CFD with 12 m/s inlet velocity and with nine different models, pressure drop measured at two different outlets. Experimental setup for model 5 with 200 mm depth and 30° cone angle proved that pressure drop affects collection efficiency and better collection efficiency can be obtained with shape and length change in vortex finder of cyclone separator. The study proved the effectiveness of cone shaped vortex finder reducing the pressure drop. The CFD results are compared with the experimental data and result is observed.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 RICE HUSK ASH-AN EXCELLENT CEMENT REDUCER 2021-12-02T12:55:35-05:00 Indra Kumar Pandey Uttpal Rai Himanshi Bhatt <p style="text-align: justify;">In present era construction industries are one of the fastest growing industries in the world as a consequence of this demand of construction materials increasing day by day. For sustainable future pozzolanic materials produced from the waste materials can be used as partial replacement of cement for minimizing environmental risks and to improve the mechanical and durability properties of concrete. In this study efforts has been made to use rice husk ash (RHA) as partial replacement of cement because of its high pozzolanic behavior. RHA blended concrete is analyzed on three parameter i.e. compressive strength, workability and water absorption at different level of RHA replacement percentage i.e. 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%and 30%. It was observed in this study that 25% of RHA replacement in OPC cement is optimum limit without affecting the strength of concrete. It was also observed that the workability of concrete decreases with increase in RHA content. The percentage water absorption increases with increase in RHA content at the age of 28 days of curing but at the age of 90 days of curing the water absorption percentage is reduced.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT AT RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY CAMPUS KOTA 2021-12-03T04:27:13-05:00 Vinay Kumar Meena Sumeet Kirodiwal Gopal Soni Yogesh Gocher Dr. M. P. Choudhary <p style="text-align: justify;">A study has been conducted to carry out analysis and design of sewage treatment plant in Rajasthan Technical University (RTU) Campus Kota as a part of our final year project work. The steady increase of population in campus results in the increase of sewage generation and the existing capacity of sewage treatment plant in campus is insufficient. So it has been proposed to construct a new sewage treatment plant with sufficient capacity to treat the increased sewage for next 30 years. The RTU campus is situated on Rawatbhata Road, about 14 km from Kota railway station and 10 km from Kota bus stand. The lush green campus is at the bank of river Chambal in an area of more than 385 acres. The most of the campus area is covered with hard rocks. The study project deals with planning of sewer lines in campus and design of sewage treatment plant and its major components such as screening chamber, grit chamber, skimming tank, sedimentation tank, and sludge drying beds. It is recommended that the treated water may be supplied for gardening and the remaining sludge after treatment can be used as manure. The use of treated water will reduce the ground water use. By the execution of project the entire sewage of the campus can be treated effectively and efficiently for next 30 years.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 DETAILED STUDIES ON PHISHING WEBPAGE DETECTION IN DATA MINING 2021-12-03T04:35:13-05:00 Sachin Sharma R L Yadav <p style="text-align: justify;">As an application of data mining, businesses can learn more about their customers and develop more effective strategies related to various business functions and in turn leverage resources in a more optimal and insightful manner. This helps businesses be closer to their objective and make better decisions. Data mining involves effective data collection and warehousing as well as computer processing. For segmenting the data and evaluating the probability of future events, data mining uses sophisticated mathematical algorithms. Data mining is also known as Knowledge Discovery in Data (KDD). Data mining technique, one of the classifications of technical approach, has shown promising results in detection of phishing websites. As compared to non-technical approaches, data mining techniques can generate classification models which can make prediction on phishing websites in real-time. Phishing is a form of fraud in which the attacker tries to learn sensitive information such as login credentials or account information by sending. This paper studied about phishing detection and prediction using various efficient algorithms. Classification of phishing is defined in this study and phishing techniques as well.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Workability study of concrete manufactured by partial replacement of river sand (fine aggregates) with ceramic waste 2021-12-03T04:40:19-05:00 Akash G. Raut Jagdip T. Patil Dr. S. R. Bhagat <p style="text-align: justify;">Among the waste generated in tile manufacturing industry, ceramic waste is one of the most important reasons of pollution. Ceramic powder is the waste product of many tile manufacturing companies and is responsible for environmental pollution. During summer season its effect is more serious on both agriculture products and public health. So taking this fact into consideration, utilizing this ceramic waste is the need of today. Various studies are carried out for making concrete cost effective and environment friendly by replacing conventional ingredients of concrete by greener alternatives. Replacing ceramic waste by sand is one such constructive way. As per Indian Standards various tests were carried out on M20 grade of concrete by replacing ceramic waste at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% proportion of sand. Comparative study of slump value and its cost effectiveness as per percentage of replacement of ceramic waste is the main highlight of this paper.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Photo – gravitational Effect on the Sitnikov Five – body Problem forming Square Configuration 2021-12-03T04:43:53-05:00 M. R. Hassan Chandan Kr. Singh M. A. Rahman Md. Aminul Hassan <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper deals with an extension of Sitnikov problem. Presently by considering the four radiating primaries at the vertices of a square and moving on the common circular orbit and the fifth body (infinitesimal mass) moving along the vertical line through the centre of the circular orbit, we form a new problem. We have developed the series solution of the Sitnikov five – body problem by the method of Lindstedt – Poincare. Also, we have examined the stability of the libration points with the help of the nature of roots of the characteristic equation. Thus, it is found that photo – gravitation has no effect on the Lindstedt – Poincare series solution but the libration points still stable.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 LEUKEMIA CANCER CELLS SEGMENTATION AND DETECTION USING BRADLEY THRESHOLDING 2021-12-03T04:47:22-05:00 Bhavani Umamaheswara Reddy T.Venkatakrishnamoorthy <p style="text-align: justify;">Blood malignancy chiefly assaults the blood, bone marrow or lymphatic framework. It is determined to have a blood test in which nearness of white platelets is checked by the hematologists which is an exceptionally tedious and dull and for the most part prompts late recognition. Therefore, this field is required to beat the impediments of manual audited process and early and quick identification. Beforehand unique strategies utilized as a part of request to diminish the many-sided quality of the framework. Along these lines need of program’s location is required to defeat the confinements of manual checked to process and early and quick discovery. In the present work applying the method of Bradley thresholding with a specific goal to section the white platelets. The proposed calculation includes distinctive advances, for example, shading space transformation, shading thresholding, sifting, marker controlled watershed and diverse morphological activities. This strategy yields favored execution over the other existing methodologies. This method gives the exact and legitimate results.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Performance Analysis of Real-Time Operating System 2021-12-03T04:50:15-05:00 Dr. Vatsal Shah Jayna Donga Kanu Patel <p style="text-align: justify;">A real time operating system means a type of operating system which complete the task by providing correct result within given dead line. Real time operating system (RTOS) is specially used to meet the real time constraint and to support the sophisticated facilities provided by embedded system. This paper describe the importance of Real Time operating system in real life, also its working. This paper also give an overview of one of the best high performance real time operating system SCIOPTA.</p> 2019-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021